Machine learning is a form of artificial intelligence (AI) that gives systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning concentrates on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it to learn for themselves.
Machine Learning Algorithms Every Engineer Should Know
Naïve Bayes Classifier Algorithm
K Means Clustering Algorithm
Support Vector Machine Algorithm
Artificial Neural Networks
One method called Ada-Boost, read this and this to know more about it, on the other hand, you can find lots of people are doing some research, for example in Gender Classification of Faces Using Adaboost.
If your main concern is speed, you should take a look at VW and generally at stochastic gradient descent based algorithms for training SVMs.