Recently I have been using docker effectively for development Web Development.
What I did is created a docker file.
After that, I included the -v to link my source code to an area in the container
I use the -p to link the port from my local ip to a port running the web app in the container (as well as enabling debug ports)
I used -w for the working directory
As a crude example for demoing the important bit to hook up your container for development
Docker run -p 8080:9090 -v $(pwd):/app -w "/app" node npm start
In the above command pwd was used from my source code folder to launch the container (/bin/bash would be your command or put this in a docker file).
If you want to learn Docker you can have a look at the following Docker training Course. You can also read the following Docker tutorial. I am also mentioning a video tutorial for you which you can use to clear all your concepts regarding Docker. .