The following are some of the types of charts in Tableau:
Bar Charts are used to compare the data across categories, highlight differences, and show trends and outliers quickly at a glance.
Line charts are used to understand the trends in data, mainly over time. Some examples include stock price changes over ten years and the website page views in the first quarter.
Scatter plots are used to understand the relationship between different variables, showing if one variable is a good predictor of another, or how they are dependent on another variable.
Gantt charts are used in project management to ensure the projects are delivered on time by showing the various elements of a project like how much time it will take as well as when they will be completed.
Bubble charts are used to determine which categories occur most often by looking at the size of the bubble and mainly to understand the relation between three or more measures.
Treemap Charts are used to show hierarchical data using size and color.
If you want to learn data visualization in Tableau, check out this Tableau Training course by Intellipaat.
You can watch this YouTube tutorial to learn Data visualization using Tableau: