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C Operators

 

Operators are used to perform operations. Operators are the symbols which perform the operation on the some values. These values are known as operands. There are following types of operators to perform different types of operations in C language:

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Misc Operators

 

1. Arithmetic Operators

Operator Operator Name Description Example
+ Addition Adds two operands I = 40, J= 20I + J = 60
Subtraction Subtracts second operand from the first I = 40, J= 20I – J = 20
* Multiplication Multiplies both operands I = 40, J= 20I * J = 800
/ Divide Perform division operation I = 40, J= 20I / J = 2
% Modulus Return the remainder after Division I = 40, J= 20I % J = 0
++ Increment Increase the operand value by 1 I=40,I++ = 41, ++I  =  40 (print 40 but next time its value is 41)
Decrement Decrease the operand value by 1 I=40I– = 39, –I =  40

(print 40 but next time its value is 39)

 

2. Relational Operators

It is also known as comparison operator because it compares the values. After comparison it returns the Boolean value i.e. either true or false.

Operator Operator Name Description Example
== Equal to If the values of two operands are equal then it returns true. I = 20, J =20(I == J) is true
!=  Not Equal to If the values of two operands are not equal then it returns true. I = 20, J =20(I == J) is False
< Less than If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand then it returns true I = 40, J =20(I < J) is False
> Greater than If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand then it returns true I = 40, J =20(I > J) is True
<= Less than or equal to If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand then it returns true. I = 40, J =20(I <= J) is False
>= Greater than or equal to If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand then it returns true. I = 40, J =20(I >= J) is True

 

3. Logical Operators

Operator Operator Name Description Example
and Logical AND When Both side condition is true the result is true otherwise false 2<1 and 2<3False
or Logical OR When at least one condition is true then result is true otherwise false 2<1 or 2<3True
not Logical NOT Reverse the condition Not(5>4)False

 

4. Bitwise Operators

It performs bit by bit operation. Suppose there are two variable I = 10 and J = 20 and their binary values are

I = 10 = 0000 1010

J = 20 = 0001 0100

Operator Operator Name Description Example
& Binary AND If both bits are 1 then 1 otherwise 0  I & J0000 0000
| Binary OR If one of the bit is 1 then 1 otherwise 0 I | J0001 1110
^ Binary XOR If both bit are same then 0 otherwise 1 I ^ J0001 1110
~ Binary Complement If bit is 1 the make it 0 and if bit is 0 the make it 1 ~I1111 0101
<< Binary Left Shift The left operand is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. I << 2 will give 240 i.e. 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift The left operand is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. I >> 2 will give 15 i.e. 1111

5. Assignment Operators

Operator Operator Name Description Example
= Assignment It assigns value from right side operand to left side operand I = 40It assigns 40 to I
+= Add then assign It performs addition and then result is assigned to left hand operand I+=Jthat means

I = I + J

-= Subtract then assign It performs subtraction and then result is assigned to left hand operand I-=Jthat means

I = I – J

*= Multiply the assign It performs multiplication and then result is assigned to left hand operand. I*=Jthat means

I = I * J

/= Divide then assign It performs division and then result is assigned to left hand operand I/=Jthat means

I = I / J

%= Modulus then assign It performs modulus and then result is assigned to left hand operand I%=Jthat means

I = I % J

<<= Left shift AND assignment operator It performs Binary left shift and then result is assigned to left hand operand I<<=5that means
I = I << 5
>>= Right shift AND assignment operator It performs Binary right shift and then result is assigned to left hand operand I>>=5that means
I = I >>=5
&= Bitwise AND assignment operator It performs bitwise AND and then result is assigned to left hand operand I &= 5that means

I = I & 5

^= bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator It performs bitwise exclusive OR and then result is assigned to left hand operand I ^= 5that means

I = I ^ 5

|= bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator It performs bitwise inclusive OR and then result is assigned to left hand operand I |= 5that means

I = I | 5

6. Misc Operators 

There are few other important operators including sizeof and ? : supported by C Language.

Operator Description
sizeof() Returns the size of an variable.
& Returns the address of an variable.
* Pointer to a variable.
? : Conditional Expression

 

Operators Precedence in C

Category  Operator  Associativity 
Postfix () [] -> . ++ – – Left to right
Unary + – ! ~ ++ – – (type)* & sizeof Right to left
Multiplicative * / % Left to right
Additive + – Left to right
Shift << >> Left to right
Relational < <= > >= Left to right
Equality == != Left to right
Bitwise AND & Left to right
Bitwise XOR ^ Left to right
Bitwise OR | Left to right
Logical AND && Left to right
Logical OR || Left to right
Conditional ?: Right to left
Assignment = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left
Comma , Left to right

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