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+1 vote
in Machine Learning by (4.2k points)

I'm trying to use deep learning to predict income from 15 self reported attributes from a dating site.

We're getting rather odd results, where our validation data is getting better accuracy and lower loss, than our training data. And this is consistent across different sizes of hidden layers. This is our model:

for hl1 in [250, 200, 150, 100, 75, 50, 25, 15, 10, 7]:
    def baseline_model():
        model = Sequential()
        model.add(Dense(hl1, input_dim=299, kernel_initializer='normal', activation='relu', kernel_regularizer=regularizers.l1_l2(0.001)))
        model.add(Dropout(0.5, seed=seed))
        model.add(Dense(3, kernel_initializer='normal', activation='sigmoid'))

        model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer='adamax', metrics=['accuracy'])
        return model

    history_logs = LossHistory()
    model = baseline_model()
    history =, Y, validation_split=0.3, shuffle=False, epochs=50, batch_size=10, verbose=2, callbacks=[history_logs])

And this is an example of the accuracy and losses: Accuracy with hidden layer of 250 neurons      and the loss.

We've tried to remove regularization and dropout, which, as expected, ended in overfitting (training acc: ~85%). We've even tried to decrease the learning rate drastically, with similar results.

Has anyone seen similar results?

1 Answer

+1 vote
by (6.8k points)

This happens after you use Dropout, since the behaviour once training and testing are completely different.

When training, a proportion of the features are set to zero (50% in your case since you're using Dropout(0.5)). When testing, all features are used (and are scaled appropriately). So the model at test time is additional robust - and might cause higher testing accuracies.

This indicates the presence of high bias in your dataset. It is underfitting. The solutions to the issue are:-

  1. Probably the network is struggling to fit the training data. Hence, try a little bit bigger network.
  2. Try a different Deep Neural Network. I mean to say change the architecture a bit.
  3. Train for a longer time.
  4. Try using advanced optimization algorithms.

Studying Deep Learning With Tensorflow is an amazing way of understanding. Also, for more captive details, study the Machine Learning Courses by Intellipaat.

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