Let us breakdown the problem by taking examples.
Let’s assume you have a hash by the name ‘Roshan’.
You pick a' and along with that you consider a random nonce r'.
So, to compute b’,
b’ = Roshan(r'|a')
If a' is an UTF8-encoded English text, I can tell you what a' was, and I can even tell you the value of the nonce r'. But, if a' was just a random bit-string, it would be impossible for me to tell its initial value. Therefore, ic can be concluded that ‘Roshan’ is not a hiding hash.
For the Puzzle friendliness property,
Take a value B', and a randomly chosen value R' (say "11110011...111"), and find an A so that Roshan(R'|A) = B'.
We can say that B'= Roshan(00101...0001 | UTF8("Bitcoin is deflationary")). And as the hash ‘Roshan’ is non-hiding, it is possible to determine an R’ (saying 00101...0001), and A (namely UTF8("Bitcoin is deflationary")), such that BadHash(R|A) = B'
But this doesn't come of any help to you as in the puzzle you specified that you require an A that works with a different R, namely "11110011...100".
This is how we can say that the properties of Hiding and Puzzle Friendliness aren't of any equivalency.
Answering the last question that you asked, I am not sure if there are any cryptographic hash functions that feature only one of these properties but not both.