Filters and parameters are created in tableau to view the data based on some conditions and conditions can vary according to your requirements. Below are the some basic differences between filters and parameters:
1. If you will use the same data set throughout your visualization that means data is is not going to change then you should use parameters. Parameters calculated or runs on the fly and doesn’t hit the data so overall your process will be fast.
But if your data is changing then you must use quick filters otherwise for static data quick filters slowed down the process.
2. Parameters can be used for entire workbook visualizations but quick filters are specific to individual sheets only you can’t use same filter in different worksheet but for parameters you can.
3. In quick filters you select multiple values but for parameters you can’t select, i.e. parameters are limited to single value.
4. During the calculations in calculated fields you can use parameters but filters can’t be used for calculated fields.
5. In parameters you can choose or enter the values like integers, float, string and date time but in filters you can’t choose those values separately.
You can learn more about filters and parameters for that check tableau certification