There are two options for doing this successfully.
In case you are not using a docker image for starting your nodes, you should deploy the chaincode by specifying a fully qualified path. In other words, you should set the parameter when deploying:
If you are running your nodes/peers in a docker image then you have two options:
The first one is to put your chaincode inside a folder in the path
Then you can build your image (go test -run BuildImage_Peer).
Now the docker image will have the chaincode in its filesystem
Finally, to deploy the chaincode you have to set the path (parameter -p) to the folder in which your chaincode is contained, relative to $GOPATH/src/. This path is:
The second option is similar but it uses a shared filesystem between docker and vagrant to access the chaincode. The idea is to run the docker so that the local-dev folder in the docker image is linked to the vagrant's local-dev folder. And, with -e GOPATH=/local-dev you set the GOPATH so that the relative path can start from the /local-dev folder.