To convert a data frame column to a vector, you can use the following:

Using the** [[ ]] **(double square brackets) to extract the atomic values from the data frame.

a1 = c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

a2 = c(6, 7, 8, 9, 10)

a3 = c(11, 12, 13, 14, 15)

aframe = data.frame(a1, a2, a3)

avector <- aframe[['a2']]

avector

[1] 6 7 8 9 10

class(avector)

[1] "numeric"

Using the following syntax:

avector <- aframe[,2]avector

[1] 6 7 8 9 10

class(avector)

[1] "numeric"

Using the **pull **function from the **dplyr **package.

pull(aframe, a2)

[1] 6 7 8 9 10

class(pull(aframe, a2))

[1] "numeric"