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in AI and Deep Learning by (50.2k points)

Suppose we are given data in a semi-structured format as a tree. As an example, the tree can be formed as a valid XML document or as a valid JSON document. You could imagine it being a lisp-like S-expression or a (G)Algebraic Data Type in Haskell or Ocaml.

We are given a large number of "documents" in the tree structure. Our goal is to cluster documents that are similar. By clustering, we mean a way to divide the documents into j groups, such that elements in each look like each other.

I am sure there are papers out there that describe approaches but since I am not very known in the area of AI/Clustering/MachineLearning, I want to ask somebody who is what to look for and where to dig.

My current approach is something like this:

  • I want to convert each document into an N-dimensional vector set up for a K-means clustering.

  • To do this, I recursively walk the document tree and for each level, I calculate a vector. If I am at a tree vertex, I recur on all sub vertices and then sum their vectors. Also, whenever I recur, a power factor is applied so it does matter less and less the further down the tree I go. The documents final vector is the root of the tree.

  • Depending on the data at a tree leaf, I apply a function that takes the data into a vector.

But surely, there are better approaches. One weakness of my approach is that it will only similarity-cluster trees which has a top structure much like each other. If the similarity is present but occurs farther down the tree, then my approach probably won't work very well.

I imagine there are solutions in full-text-search as well, but I do want to take advantage of the semi-structure present in the data.

Distance function

As suggested, one needs to define a distance function between documents. Without this function, we can't apply a clustering algorithm.

In fact, it may be that the question is about that very distance function and examples thereof. I want documents where elements near the root are the same to cluster close to each other. The farther down the tree we go, the less it matters.

The take-one-step-back viewpoint:

I want to cluster stack traces from programs. These are well-formed tree structures, where the function close to the root is the inner function that fails. I need a decent distance function between stack traces that probably occur because the same event happened in code.

1 Answer

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by (108k points)

To perform clustering, you first need to define a distance function based on what you expect. Tree-structured data usually contain both topological and geometrical information and are necessarily considered on manifold(it is essentially performing non-linear dimensionality reduction on the data before clustering) instead of Euclidean space for appropriate data parameterization and analysis.

If string matching would indeed be more appropriate for your problem, you can run through your data, map each node onto a hash, and create n-grams for each 'document'.



  • Exception A -> 0

  • Exception B -> 1

  • Exception C -> 2

  • Exception D -> 3

Doc A: 0-1-2 Doc B: 1-2-3

2-grams for doc A: X0, 01, 12, 2X

2-grams for doc B: X1, 12, 23, 3X

Using the n-grams, you will be able to cluster similar sequences of events regardless of the root node (in this example event 12)

However, if you are still convinced that you need trees, instead of strings, you must consider the following: finding similarities for trees is a lot more complex. You will want to find similar subtrees, with subtrees that are similar over a greater depth resulting in a better similarity score. For this purpose, you will need to discover closed subtrees (subtrees that are the base subtrees for trees that extend it). What you don't want is a data collection containing subtrees that are very rare, or that are present in each document you are processing (which you will get if you do not look for frequent patterns).

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