Assume you know a student who wants to study Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing.
What specific computer science subjects should they focus on and which programming languages are specifically designed to solve these types of problems?
I am not looking for your favorite subjects and tools, but rather industry standards.
Example: I'm guessing that knowing Prolog and Matlab might help them. They also might want to study Discrete Structures*, Calculus, and Statistics.
*Graphs and trees. Functions: properties, recursive definitions, solving recurrences. Relations: properties, equivalence, partial order. Proof techniques, inductive proof. Counting techniques and discrete probability. Logic: propositional calculus, first-order predicate calculus. Formal reasoning: natural deduction, resolution. Applications to program correctness and automatic reasoning. Introduction to algebraic structures in computing.