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This seems to occur a lot, and was wondering if this was a requirement in the Python language, or merely a matter of convention?

Also, could someone name and explain which functions tend to have underscores, and why (__init__, for instance)?

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The reason behind some functions have underscores “__” before and after the function name because it is the Naming Style in Python:-

Below are the details of some of the important naming styles in Python:-

  • The use of _single_leading_underscore is for weak "internal use" indicator.

  • The single_trailing_underscore_ is used to avoid conflicts with Python keyword, 

  • The __double_leading_underscore is used when naming a class attribute, invokes name mangling (inside class AbcPdf, __Abc becomes _AbcPdf__Abc).

  • While the __double_leading_and_trailing_underscore__ is called as "magic" objects or attributes that live in user-controlled namespaces. 

 

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