Artificial Intelligence is a computer science field wherein systems are programmed in a way that they gain the cognitive ability to act and think like humans and mimic their actions in certain situations. It is a vast field and Machine Learning and Deep Learning are subsets of this technology.
Machine Learning is a sub-domain of Artificial Intelligence in which systems are trained to learn and improve automatically from past data sets fed to them for training. It is the best technology that allows organizations to analyze and identify data patterns that otherwise remain hidden in the huge pile of data.
Deep Learning is a Machine Learning subset that mimics the neural networking of a human brain. In this technology, the learning part is done using neural networks. A neural network is nothing but an architecture in which there are multiple layers stacked over each other.
Artificial Intelligence mostly uses Machine Learning and Deep Learning in most of its techniques and functions, but not in all. One of the places where it does not use these technologies is during a knowledge-based approach. In this, a defined set of rules is provided to the systems and they act as per these rules and perform accordingly. Since the system is not learning anything in this technique, it does not use Machine Learning or Deep Learning.
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Also, watch this Youtube video to know more about the similarities and differences between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning: