R programming is used for statistical computation. It has packages for performing mathematical and statistical calculations on data, data science tasks, and also for data visualization.
Python can be used for web development, software development, and data science. It has a large number of libraries and packages that allows us to handle tasks like data-transformation, data-filtering, data-wrangling, machine learning, predictive analysis, etc.
SAS stands for Statistical Analytics Software that is used for statistical analytics. SAS is very expensive. So, only big corporations use it, but not used by individuals and small organizations. SAS is suitable for complex statistical operations but not suitable for data visualization, advanced analytics, and machine learning techniques compared to Python or R.
Also, watch this video on Python vs R vs SAS: