When you are writing this code:
hduser@ubuntu:/usr/local/hadoop$ hadoop fs -put /usr/local/input-data/ /input
put: /usr/local/input-data (Permission denied)
Here, the user(hduser) does not have access to the local directory /usr/local/input-data. That is, your local permissions are too restrictive.
And in your second part of the code:
hduser@ubuntu:/usr/local/hadoop$ sudo bin/hadoop fs -put /usr/local/input-data/ /input put:org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException: Permission denied: user=root, access=WRITE, inode="":hduser:supergroup:rwxr-xr-x
Here, the user root doesn’t have access to the HDFS directory(/input).
As you can see: Permission denied: user=root, access=WRITE, inode="":hduser:supergroup:rwxr-xr-x
It tells that hduser has just write access, so you need to change the permission.
I would suggest you to try this approach:
sudo -u hdfs hadoop fs -mkdir <dir path>
sudo -u hdfs hadoop fs -chown <dir path>
Then try -put command:
$ Hadoop fs –put <source-path> <destination-path>
Refer to the following video tutorial, if you want to know more about Hadoop: