• Articles
  • Tutorials
  • Interview Questions

What is Data Science? Lifecycle, Applications with Example

What is Data Science? Lifecycle, Applications with Example

Currently, data is crucial for every firm. Raw data does not serve any purpose until and unless it is processed. Data science transforms raw and unstructured data into actionable insight, which can then be used for decision-making and planning. According to Forbes, Data Scientists have to spend about 80% of their time cleaning and preparing data. This points out how critical data quality is for understanding information.  
In this blog, we will discuss what Data Science is, its processes, and how you can follow a proper roadmap to excel in this field.

Watch this Data Science Tutorial:

What Is Data Science?

Data science is a diverse field that uses new tools and techniques to analyze large data. It includes Math, Statistics, Programming, Analytics, AI, and Machine Learning to reveal hidden patterns and extract valuable insights. These insights help in informed business decisions and strategic planning, making Data Science essential in today’s business landscape. 

For example: A case study that also went on to become a Hollywood feature film, “Moneyball.”

In the movie, they show how an underdog team went on to compete at the highest level of the baseball tournament by analyzing the statistical data points of each player and quantifying their performances to win the game. It can be aligned with how Data Science works.

What Is Data Science

What Is Data Scientist?

Data scientists are IT professionals whose main role in an organization is to perform data wrangling on a large volume of data, whether it is structured or unstructured, after gathering and analyzing it. Data scientists need this voluminous data for multiple reasons, including building hypotheses, analyzing market and customer patterns, and making inferences.

Why Data Science?

In a data-rich world that produces around 330 million terabytes of data every day, Data Science is an essential tool. This field allows companies to identify trends and draw conclusions from huge amounts of data with the help of software like Numpy, Pandas, or Matplotlib. For example, in online retail predictive programs use past sales records together with recommendation engines to know what product a customer is likely to buy next. 

data model framework

By using Data Science, organizations can solve problems more effectively, make decisions based on accurate information, and find hidden patterns while saving time and money on operations optimization. Data science has no limits; it opens up infinite opportunities for people as well as businesses to explore and understand various aspects of the modern world.

data science venn diagram

Learn Mathematics for Data Science in our blog.

Data Science Life Cycle

data science life cycle

Let’s break down the data science life cycle:

  1. Data Collection: Everything starts with gathering information. Structured or unstructured, it can be obtained from different sources, such as the Internet, real-time streams, and social platforms.
  1. Data Preparation: After collecting the data, it will go through the cleaning process. The data will be ready for analysis after transformation and integration.
  1. Data Exploration: Then comes digging into what analysts have – patterns? Biases? Trends? Anything that may serve as an indicator towards further investigation.
  1. Data Analysis: At this point, things get serious; experts employ various methods like mining through records or creating models based on them to extract knowledge from datasets.
  1. Insight Communication: In the end, display your research, present it in an easy way. It should also be visually appealing, and the implications have to be clear.

Data Science Prerequisites

data science prerequisites

Here are the concepts you need to understand before you go into Data Science:

  1. Machine Learning: For data science, machine learning is very important. A Data Scientist must know the foundations of statistics as well as the principles of ML, for them to be able to extract and analyze the data properly.
  1. Modeling: In this case, mathematical models are used to make predictions or carry out computations based on available information. Modeling is essential as it identifies which algorithm works best for the given problem, and how models should be trained. ML cannot exist without modeling.
  1. Statistics: Statistics is the backbone of Data Science. It empowers analysts to derive meaningful insights from datasets. Proficiency in statistics enhances the ability to extract intelligence and produce impactful results.
  1. Programming: Programming skills are crucial in executing successful projects related to data science. Python and R languages dominate most fields, but Python has been found favorable due to its simplicity and wide support for various libraries used during DS/ML.
  1. Database Management: Databases help in easy retrieval manipulation thus enabling comprehensive analysis on any given dataset.

Data Science IITM Pravartak

What Is the Data Science Process?

Let’s understand what is the process of data science with an example:

data science process

Step 1: Gathering Raw Data

Let’s say a company wants to understand public sentiment toward its brand on social media. They decided to gather data from the Twitter API, which provides a stream of tweets related to their brand.

Step 2: Data Modeling

Using statistical analysis and machine learning approaches, the Data Scientists preprocess and clean the Twitter data. They extract relevant features, such as sentiment scores, user demographics, and engagement metrics. The data is then transformed into a structured format suitable for analysis.

Step 3: Actionable Insights

The Data Scientists analyze the structured data to derive insights. They identify patterns, trends, and correlations within the Twitter data. For example, they may discover that positive sentiment is higher among younger demographics and during certain events, like holidays, festivities, etc. These insights provide the company with actionable information on how to improve its brand perception and engagement strategies.

Importance of Data Science

Data is important in most sectors because it forms the foundation of informed business decisions. Raw data can be turned into useful information through data science.

Data scientists can extract valuable insights from any type of available information, and this skill set is what enables them to do so. They are skilled at converting numbers, statistics, and data points into actionable recommendations; instead of dealing with just raw figures, they shape them into guiding lights for organizations’ success based on accurate information.

These experts operate in uncharted territories filled with scattered records about everything under the sun, where numbers run wild and change constantly, like the wind blowing across a plain. They ensure that all decisions, or suggestions made are supported by strong analysis derived from robust sources, which makes firms agile enough to not only capitalize on but stay ahead in an increasingly competitive information-driven world.

Applications of Data Science

Applications of data science

The below-listed applications showcase how data science drives operational efficiency, cost savings, and improved decision-making across diverse sectors.

Predictive Analytics: Predictive models make predictions by using past data to help organizations spot trends and be more proactive.

Recommendation Systems: These systems, powered by data, suggest personalized content, products’, or services based on user preferences and behavior thereby boosting user engagement.

Fraud Detection: Data science can detect patterns of fraud as well as abnormal behaviors through algorithms, thus enabling organizations to prevent financial losses caused by cyber crimes.

Healthcare Analytics: Through analyzing clinical information with genetic profiles and healthcare analytics, professionals can identify risk factors, predict disease progression, and optimize treatment plans. This can lead to better outcomes for patients.

Supply Chain Optimization: Data-driven logistics management involves demand forecasting, and inventory control coupled with information flow analysis to reduce disruptions along the supply chain while improving efficiency levels at minimum costs.

Customer Segmentation: Businesses categorize customers into different groups according to their age, gender etc., and then they come up with marketing strategies tailored for each segment. In this way, products will sell best because people want what suits them most.

Sentiment Analysis: Algorithms that do sentiment analysis review text data from social media, customer reviews, and surveys to determine what the general public thinks about something.

Image Recognition: Deep learning among other data science techniques allows machines to understand and evaluate images, which is used in facial recognition systems, object detection software and medical imaging tools.

Natural Language Processing (NLP): Programs that use NLP analyze human language texts to perform such tasks as text categorisation, sentiment identification, translation of languages and interaction with chatbots.

Financial Modeling: The use of data science methods within finance enables risk assessment through modeling while optimizing portfolios thereby helping investors make decisions based on facts as well as manage financial risks more effectively for banks and other financial institutions.

Examples of Data Science

examples of data science

Let’s take a look at some data science examples:

Amazon: Amazon uses a personalized recommendation system to improve customer satisfaction. This is heavily dependent on predictive analytics. Amazon analyzes the user’s purchase history to recommend more products.

Spotify: Spotify utilizes Data Science to offer personalized music recommendations to users. In 2013, Spotify made predictions about the Grammy Award winners by analyzing what music its users listen to; out of the 6 predictions, 4 were true.

Uber: Uber utilizes big data to gain better insights and provide better service to its users. With its huge database of drivers, it can suggest to users the most suitable one. Uber charges customers based on the time it takes to get to their destination. This prediction is helped by various algorithms.

Data Science SSBM

What are Different Data Science Tools?

data science tool

Data Science is a broad field with many tools that allow for data analysis and quick insight generation. Here are some of the commonly used tools by Data Scientists:

Python: This language is a one-stop-shop for programming in data science. Python makes it easy to work with data frames or perform mathematical calculations, among other tasks, thanks to libraries such as Pandas, Numpy, or Scikit-Learn.

R: R is a statistical language often used by Data Scientists because it excels at statistical computing and graphics. It also provides an extendable environment featuring many packages like ggplot2 or dplyr, which facilitate manipulation and visualization of datasets.

SQL: SQL (Structured Query Language) is essential when dealing with relational database management systems (RDBMS). SQL helps create tables; query them using different restrictions, such as selecting only specific columns when conditions are met between two values, etc.; join tables on common fields, etc., thus enabling fast access to required information from any workplace database system.

Jupyter Notebook: This refers to an IDLE that is capable of executing live codes within a document. The code can be run in sections and shared publicly through platforms such as Github for collaborative purposes.

Apache Spark: Apache Spark is a free and open-source cluster-computing system created to process and analyze big data on a distributed computing system (a cluster). Along with the Python, Scala, and Java APIs, which expose principles of distributed computing, they are useful for developers who work on larger datasets.

TensorFlow and PyTorch: While both of these general learning libraries have a growing number of users, it is due to their ability to generate and educate artificial neural networks that they are quite famous.

Tableau: Tableau presents people with a means of analyzing big data more effectively, thereby providing them with the necessary tools for developing any interactive visualization from directing different sources of information.

Excel: Excel is not designed for data science. However, this software is one of the most popular tools used to turn datasets into reports. 

Apache Hadoop: Apache Hadoop is a free and open-source software framework that runs on a cluster composed of many independent machines, each with its own local storage. The software is designed to work with commodity hardware, such as traditional desktop processors, and memory. The major purpose of this seemingly simple component is to upgrade a fault-tolerant storage system where very large data files are stored.

Git: Git, which has become popular over recent years, is an example of a version control system that facilitates collaborations between multiple people on code repositories. Data scientists use Git to track variations alongside safe backups. They can also revert to the original if needed, which allows people to work together at different times without overwriting when the other person is working on the same project. 

Data scientists can benefit from these data technology tools as it helps to pre-process huge amounts of data, and insights and take actions that are centered around decision making,  which is useful not only to industry or companies but to lots of domains.

Uses of Data Science

uses of data science

Data science finds extensive applications in various domains, revolutionizing decision-making processes and enhancing operational efficiency.

  1. In healthcare, it aids in early disease detection, drug discovery, and personalized treatment plans.
  1. E-commerce platforms use data science for product recommendations, targeted marketing, and Supply Chain Optimization. 
  1. In finance, data science is used for credit risk assessment, fraud detection, and stock market analysis.
  1. In the manufacturing industry, it can be used for predictive maintenance, quality control, and process improvement.
  1. In the transportation and logistics industries, it is used for optimizing the route for transport trucks and can be used to manage fleets.


Where Do You Fit in Data Science?

In the wide expanse of data science, there are a multitude of chances to specialize and make a difference. Below are some of the most important roles in this field:

Data Scientist

Job Role: Data scientists serve as problem solvers by asking questions, finding relevant data sets, and performing deep analysis to extract meaningful insights.

Skills Needed: A good command of programming languages like SAS, R, Python, etc. is necessary for any professional looking forward to becoming a Data Scientist. Also, storytelling ability combined with strong capabilities in visualizing information through graphical representation would be very useful. Having statistical or mathematical knowledge along with competencies in using tools, such as Hadoop SQL machine learning would also prove invaluable.

Data Analyst

Job Role: Data analysts act as a link between business analysts and Data Scientists, where they convert technical analysis into actionable insights for organizational decision making.

Skills Needed: Among other things, individuals working as data analysts must have skills in statistical analysis using software programs such as SAS, R, or Python; moreover, they should be able to manipulate large datasets so that it becomes easier to identify trends visually, thus helping communicate findings effectively with different stakeholders

Data Engineer

Job Role: These data analysts focus on developing, installing and managing the systems and channels that facilitate the analysis and processing of information. They guarantee the availability of records as well as enhance the efficiency of queries through the optimization of data flow.

Skills Needed: In addition to being conversant with programming languages like Java or Scala, data engineers should also be knowledgeable in non-relational databases such as MongoDB and Cassandra DBs. Some frameworks they should know include Apache Hadoop, which allows for efficient management and processing of data.

Understanding the various roles and skills within Data Science will help individuals align their knowledge and passion towards lucrative careers in this vibrant, ever-changing industry.


Today, if any digitally-driven organization is starved of data, even for a short duration, then the organization loses its competitive edge. Data scientists help organizations make sense of their business, customers, and market.

If you want to become a Google Data Scientist with the best salary, you need to be at the top of your game. If you are wondering how to learn data science and the scope of Data Science, Intellipaat is the right place to start your incredible Data Science journey.

Also, check the difference between Data Science Vs Machine Learning


What is the difference between data science, artificial intelligence, and machine learning?

With data science, you can analyze, visualize, and predict data using statistical techniques. Artificial intelligence makes machines act like humans. The machine is made to imitate human behavior. Machine learning is a part of AI that makes machines learn using the data provided.

What is data science in simple words?

Data science helps in finding meaningful insights from data using various techniques.

What does a data scientist do?

A data scientist helps businesses by analyzing large amounts of data and extracting meaning from it.

What is data science with an example?

Data science uses various tools and techniques to process and analyze data. For example, it can optimize road routes using traffic data and location data from various users. This can help in reducing fuel consumption.

What kinds of problems do data scientists solve?

Data scientists can solve issues like forecasting events, revamping search engines, predicting crime, traffic prediction, etc.

What is the data science course eligibility?

You can check out Intellipaat’s data science course for more details.

Can I learn data science on my own?

Data science could be daunting to learn by yourself. It is recommended that you learn it with the help of a structured program.

Course Schedule

Name Date Details
Data Scientist Course 22 Jun 2024(Sat-Sun) Weekend Batch
View Details
Data Scientist Course 29 Jun 2024(Sat-Sun) Weekend Batch
View Details
Data Scientist Course 06 Jul 2024(Sat-Sun) Weekend Batch
View Details

About the Author

Principal Data Scientist

Meet Akash, a Principal Data Scientist who worked as a Supply Chain professional with expertise in demand planning, inventory management, and network optimization. With a master’s degree from IIT Kanpur, his areas of interest include machine learning and operations research.