If you want to determine the maximum size of int in C when compiled the same way as Python was, you can try using the struct module to find out like this:
>>> import struct
>>> platform_c_maxint = 2 ** (struct.Struct('i').size * 8 - 1) - 1
Note: Python 3 ints do not have a maximum.
But, If you are curious about the internal implementation details of Python 3 int objects, then look at sys.int_info for bits per digit and digit size details.