You can go with user pools as sort of a directory which contains user attributes such as name, phone number, email, etc. You can federate users into user pools. Cognito Federated identities let you federate users into AWS and vends AWS credentials that can be used to access the resources you allow in your policy.
For Cognito Federated Identities, you can also have a variety of identity providers that you can configure such as Google, Facebook, and also Cognito User Pools can be an identity provider.
What you want to use totally depends on your use case, If you don't require AWS resources for your app then probably User Pools is all that you need.
Do Check out the AWS Certification Course offered by Intellipaat.