In the computer science world, a heuristic is a procedure developed for solving a problem more quickly, when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.
This is achieved by trading optimality, completeness, accuracy, or exactness for speed.
Here you can refer to the link which contains some few basic examples where a heuristic algorithm can be used: https://www.101computing.net/heuristic-approaches-to-problem-solving/
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