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Both Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Sawtooth are platforms for building distributed ledger applications, supporting pluggable consensus mechanisms and smart contracts (chaincodes).

What are the main differences between then? When to choose one over the other to implement a blockchain solution?

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The differences between Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Sawtooth are many. They can be listed down as:  

Feature/Protocol

Hyperledger Fabric

Hyperledger Sawtooth

Blockchain Type Support

Supports only permissioned blockchain networks as it features MSPs for enabling secure governance. 

Supports both permissioned and permission-less blockchain networks as it enables flexible roles and permissions

Consensus Algorithm

Supports pluggable consensus algorithms.

Supports Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) which is more energy-efficient and effective than traditional Proof of Work. 

Smart Contract Language

Supports Go, JavaScript, Java, Python, Rust, and Solidity based Smart Contracts. 

Supports Go, Java, JavaScript, and Solidity based Smart Contracts. 

Privacy

Enables multiple levels of privacy and channels can be defined to preserve anonymity and stronghold security as per requirements. 

Users can have access to all transaction data. 

Transaction Flow

Transactions are executed at an initial level on a set of users by following an Execute-Order-Commit Model. Therefore, scalability and security in transactions are substantially improved. 

Supports the traditional blockchain flow ‘Order-Execute-Commit’ 

General Differences

Supports queries from smart contracts using the key range or JSON queries.  

Either all transactions are committed or none of them are committed. 

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