In simple words Artificial intelligence is nothing but the machines who behave like humans .
But according to definition it is ‘ A branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers ’.
There are four types of artificial intelligence:
reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind and self-awareness.
1.Reactive machines :-
The most basic types of AI systems are purely reactive, and have the ability neither to form memories nor to use past experiences to inform current decisions.
For eg. Deep blue -Deep Blue can identify the pieces on a chess board and know how each moves. It can make predictions about what moves might be next for it and its opponent. And it can choose the most optimal moves from among the possibilities.
But it doesn’t have any concept of the past, nor any memory of what has happened before. Apart from a rarely used chess-specific rule against repeating the same move three times, Deep Blue ignores everything before the present moment. All it does is look at the pieces on the chess board as it stands right now, and choose from possible next moves.
This Type II class contains machines that can look into the past. Self-driving cars do some of this already. For example, they observe other cars’ speed and direction. That can’t be done in just one moment, but rather requires identifying specific objects and monitoring them over time.
These observations are added to the self-driving cars’ preprogrammed representations of the world, which also include lane markings, traffic lights and other important elements, like curves in the road. They’re included when the car decides when to change lanes, to avoid cutting off another driver or being hit by a nearby car.
3. Theory of Mind:-
This advanced class not only form representations about the world, but also about other entities in the world. In psychology, this is called the “theory of mind” – the understanding that people, creatures and objects in the world can have thoughts and emotions that affect their own behavior.
If AI systems are indeed ever to walk among us, they’ll have to be able to understand that each of us has thoughts and feelings and expectations for how we’ll be treated. And they’ll have to adjust their behavior accordingly.