Algorithms are one of the key concepts of computer science; they are the basis of efficient coding, data processing, and software engineering.
Data Science employs three algorithms in particular:
Machine learning algorithms
Data preparation, munging, and process algorithms
Optimization algorithms for parameter estimation (Least-Squares, Stochastic Gradient Descent, and Newton’s Method)
Algorithms make use of training data and match it with the input data to come up with a conclusion that has high accuracy. Some important algorithms in Data Science include decision trees and random forests, regression, clustering, and classification techniques, as well as machine learning techniques like supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. Additionally, there are many algorithms built by organizations as per their requirements.
So, to answer your question, yes! You do need to know about algorithms, binary trees, etc.
Here is how you can start learning Data Science from scratch:
This 13-hour tutorial is very comprehensive and holistic and covers everything from introducing one to the concept of Data Science to learning all about decision trees. Make sure to check out the other videos by Intellipaat on Data Science as well. As a beginner, it will truly help you grasp the fundamentals of the domain.