Hybrid Electric Vehicle Types, Working & Advantages
Updated on 24th Nov, 22 15 Views

A vehicle that only uses electricity is known as an Electric Vehicle. Like other traditional vehicles, this one lacks an internal combustion engine. Instead, it uses an electric motor to drive the wheels. These cars are rising in popularity right now. Electric Vehicles have been viewed as a potentially effective transit option for the future. 

Table of Contents

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Types of Electric Vehicles

There are four types of Electric Vehicles:

  • Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
  • Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)
  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Definition

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a style of car that combines an electric motor with a traditional internal combustion engine. When contrasted to a regular car, this model is a type to operate and uses fuel more efficiently.

Due to their higher price compared to standard gasoline/diesel vehicles, hybrid vehicles could not be an affordable alternative for everybody. Yet, subsequent advancements in technology could make them more inexpensive. 

The transition from traditional automobiles to electric vehicles is made possible in large part by hybrid electric vehicles. They might be more effective and offer an enjoyable experience of driving with improved battery technology. 

As a result of their cutting-edge electric drivetrains and effective internal combustion engines, HEVs are also more ecologically beneficial.

Working of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Here is a quick explanation of the top 5 processes to assist in your understanding of how a hybrid electric vehicle works:

1. Reversing pace after a stop
An electric motor that uses the hybrid battery as its power source first propels the vehicle forward.

2. Regular Cruising
The gasoline engine and electric motor can operate separately or in combination when traveling at high rates of speed.

3. Vigorous Acceleration
The gasoline engine gives the automobile its power at high rates and during hard acceleration.

4. Stopping and Slowing Down
In order to refuel the battery pack, kinetic energy is converted to electric energy as the vehicle slows down and brakes. In addition, when the brakes are used, the car’s electric motor switches to reversal, which slows down the tires.

5. Arriving at a Complete Stop
As soon as the car stops, both the electric and gasoline motors are turned off. Nevertheless, the vehicle’s battery continues to operate, enabling the operation of the stereo, air conditioning, and lighting systems.

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Types of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

There are three types of Hybrid Electric Vehicles:

Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle: In terms of design, a series hybrid is comparable to a battery-electric vehicle (BEV). Instead of the wheels themselves, an electric generator is powered by internal combustion in this case. 

Series-Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The electric motor that propels the vehicle is powered by the generator, which also replenishes a battery. It uses both the cell and the generator when a lot of power is needed. 

Since the gas engine only produces power for the electric motor to utilize and never directly propels the wheels, series hybrids are also known as Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) or Range-Extended Electric Vehicles (REEVs).

Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle: An ICE(Internal Combustion Engine) and an electric motor both are coupled to a manual gearbox to power a parallel hybrid vehicle. 

Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Both the engine and the motor operate to the greatest extent feasible in their optimal working ranges due to varying power transmission among them. A parallel hybrid lacks an independent generator. 

The motor serves as the generator when it is necessary to run the vehicle. The car can never operate exclusively on electricity in a parallel mild hybrid. When an extra surge is required, the electric motor merely kicks on.

Parallel-Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle: The Electric Car can be propelled only by the gas engine, solely by the electric motor, or jointly by the two energy conversion systems. 

Parallel-Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The engine’s optimum operation frequency may be reached as far as feasible by carefully balancing the energy distribution between the engine and motor.

Advantages of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The advantages of hybrid vehicles are listed below:

  • Idle-off
    • Adding a supplementary electric motor offers the vehicle with “idle-off” a sizable number of advantages.
    • In other words, The electric vehicle can move even the primary engine offs. As a result, batteries are used to power amenities like radios and air conditioning.
  • Quick Acceleration 
    • When extra power is needed, the hybrid car’s tools enable it to switch from an electric motor to the main engine. 
    • When accelerating hard, this happens more frequently.
  • Power Support 
    • One of the primary benefits of hybrid automobiles is the possibility to lower the size of the main engine, which increases fuel economy.
    • Many hybrid cars use electric motors to start up and accelerate slows until they reach higher speeds. Then, they use gasoline engines to increase fuel efficiency.
  • Regenerative Braking
    • One of the most acceptable benefits of hybrid vehicles is this. Kinetic energy may be converted into electric energy during regenerative braking, which recharges the battery system.
    • he wheels of the car drive forward to power the engine when it is in reverse. This assists in lowering the vehicle’s speed while simultaneously recharging.
    • Currently, the number of fully electric vehicles—cars that only use electric motors—is increasing. In this area, businesses like Tesla Motors are particularly promising because their vehicles allow for decreased emissions of hazardous chemicals.

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Disadvantages of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Here are some disadvantages of hybrid electric vehicles:

  • Low Efficiency: The major goal of a hybrid vehicle is to enhance its fuel economy or mobility, it may not accelerate as quickly as a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine.

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  • Expensive to Purchase: Despite the efforts by manufacturers to close the price difference between hybrids and regular vehicles, hybrids still command higher prices.
  • Higher Maintenance: Since hybrid vehicles are powered by two different sets of engines and have many mechanical components, maintenance costs are still extremely high. 

Additionally, not all technicians are qualified to fix hybrid vehicles.

Electric Vehicles VS Hybrid Electric Vehicles

ParametersElectric VehicleHybrid Electric Vehicle
key energy sourceElectricityFuel
PriceLowHigh
Driving FrequencyLowHigh
operating systemThe wheels are propelled by an Electric Motor.In order to move the car forward, both the Internal Combustion Engine and the Electric Motor is used.

Top Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The most well-known hybrid vehicles worldwide are listed below:

  1. BMW i8
  2. Toyota Corolla
  3. Hyundai Sonata
  4. Honda Accord
  5. Ford Fusion Hybrid
  6. Hyundai Ioniq
  7. Kia Optima
  8. Toyota Prius
  9. Toyota Camry

Conclusion

The evolution of hybrid electric vehicles already offered solutions to the electric vehicle market. The ability to use assets more efficiently, such as gasoline or power, is a crucial factor in the advancement of Hybrid Electric Vehicle-related technology. 

The adoption of new development standards is becoming increasingly dependent on creating HEV technologies due to the demands placed on power generation and the need to minimize fossil fuel consumption.

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