Mastering the Art of Electric Vehicle Drawing
Updated on 06th Sep, 23 9.1K Views

This guide on ‘Mastering the Art of Electric Vehicle Drawing’ will break down the different types of electric vehicles, their components, and the diagrams. It will help you grasp the backstory of the electric vehicle mechanism. So let’s uncover the secrets behind capturing the dynamic design lines of Tesla, the elegance of the Nissan LEAF, and more about how these vehicles work and how to get the most out of them. 

Table of Contents

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Introduction to Electric Vehicle Drawing

The artistic expression of the sustainable transportation revolution is represented through electric vehicle (EV) drawings and electric car sketches. EV sketches capture electric vehicles’ elegant shapes and advanced components, transforming breakthrough technology into visual creativity. These illustrations reflect the essence of electric cars by highlighting battery settings, aerodynamic designs, and advanced interiors. 

Designers bring the EV revolution to life by thoroughly modeling a future in which electric transportation rules supreme. In the world of art, EV sketching sets the way for a visually stunning and environmentally conscious tomorrow.

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Types of Electric Vehicles Illustrated With Drawings

Let’s take a look at the overview of various electric vehicle types, accompanied by illustrative diagrams. Here are the different types of electric vehicles: 

  • Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
  • Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

An electric car that runs entirely on electricity is referred to as a battery electric vehicle (BEV). It has an electric motor powered by a large battery pack stored under the car’s floor. BEVs are eco-friendly since they have no tailpipe emissions. Compared to conventional gasoline-powered cars, BEVs operate quietly, accelerate smoothly, and need less maintenance.

Example: Tesla Model 3, the Chevrolet Bolt EV, and the Nissan LEAF are some examples of Battery Electric Vehicles.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

HEVs, or hybrid electric vehicles, combine a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with an electric motor. To accelerate and drive at low speeds, the engine receives assistance from the electric motor, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Regenerative braking is another technique HEVs use to recharge the battery by transforming kinetic energy into electrical energy. Unlike BEVs, HEVs cannot be charged from an external source, as the electric motor is primarily used to supplement the gasoline engine rather than propel the vehicle on its own.

Example: Toyota Prius, the Honda Insight, and the Hyundai Elantra Hybrid are a few examples of Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, or PHEVs, are similar to HEVs but with a larger battery and the ability to be charged from an external power source. PHEVs can operate in electric-only mode for a certain range before the internal combustion engine takes over. This enables short commutes and city driving to be completed without using any gasoline, reducing overall emissions and fuel consumption. The vehicle switches to hybrid mode and functions like a traditional hybrid with low battery power. 

Example: Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius Prime are two examples of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

Fuel cell electric vehicles, often known as FCEVs, employ an air-hydrogen fuel cell stack to produce electricity. The only result of this electrochemical reaction, which generates electricity to run an electric motor, is water vapor. FCEVs offer the advantage of quick refueling times compared to battery charging, and they can provide longer driving ranges than many BEVs. However, the production and distribution of hydrogen fuel present challenges, and the availability of hydrogen refueling infrastructure is limited. 

Example: Toyota Mirai and the Hyundai Nexo are some examples of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles.

Components of Electric Vehicles and Their Diagram

In this section of our blog, we will explore the inner workings of four distinct electric vehicle types: Battery Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles. 

Through detailed drawings and comprehensive explanations, we will help you understand the fundamental components that differentiate these electric vehicle types.

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Components of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

Below are the components of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), along with their diagrams:

  • Traction Battery Pack: 
Traction Battery Pack
  • This is the heart of the BEV, storing the energy that powers the electric motor. It is made up of a series of individual battery cells, which are connected in a series-parallel arrangement to provide the desired voltage and current output. The battery pack is typically under the vehicle’s floor to help lower the center of gravity and improve handling.
  • Electric Motor: 
Electric Motor
  • The component converts the energy stored in the battery pack into mechanical energy that can be used to power the vehicle’s wheels. Electric motors are typically more efficient than gasoline engines, producing zero emissions.
  • Power Inverter: 
Power Inverter
  • This device converts the direct current (DC) power from the battery pack into alternating current (AC) power that the electric motor can use. The power inverter is typically located near the electric motor.
  • Charger: 
Charger
  • A charger is a device that helps reload the battery of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). There are two main kinds: Level 1 chargers and Level 2 chargers. Level 1 chargers use a regular household outlet to charge the battery, while Level 2 chargers need a special 240-volt outlet for faster charging.
  • Controller: 
Controller
  • Think of the controller as a traffic cop for your electric car. It manages the energy flow between the battery, the motor, and the power converter. Just like a traffic cop keeps cars moving smoothly and prevents accidents, the controller keeps the battery safe and makes sure the motor works properly.
  • Auxiliary Batteries: 
Auxiliary Batteries
  • In certain Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), there are extra batteries known as auxiliary batteries. These batteries are like backup power sources for the car’s extras, like the lights, radio, and air conditioning.
  • Thermal System: 
Thermal System
  • The thermal system is like the AC for the electric car’s important parts – the battery pack and the electric motor. It’s really important, especially on hot days, to keep the electric car running smoothly and performing well.
  • Transmission
Transmission
  • In some electric cars (BEVs), there’s a thing called a transmission. This transmission helps control how fast the wheels of the car turn. But you might see it less in electric cars because their motors can handle different speeds without a transmission, as regular gas cars do.

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Components of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

Below are the drawings of the components of a Hybrid Electric vehicle:

  • Internal Combustion Engine (ICE): 
Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
  • The ICE is the primary power source for an HEV. It is typically a gasoline engine, but some HEVs use diesel or hybrid-specific engines. The ICE is located in the front of the vehicle and drives the wheels directly or through a transmission.
  • Electric Motor: The electric motor is like a helper engine in a hybrid car (HEV). It gets its power from a battery and can either move the car by itself or work together with the regular engine. You’ll find this electric motor either at the front or back of the car, depending on how the car is designed.
  • Battery Pack: 
Battery Pack
  • The battery pack stores the energy that powers the electric motor. It comprises a series of individual battery cells, which are connected in a series-parallel arrangement to provide the desired voltage and current output. The battery pack is typically under the vehicle’s floor to help lower the center of gravity and improve handling.
  • Powertrain Control Unit (PCU): 
Powertrain Control Unit (PCU)
  • The powertrain control unit (PCU) is like the brain of the car. It’s a computer that makes sure the regular engine, electric motor, and battery all work together smoothly. It also takes care of things like the special brakes that recharge the battery and the system that stops the engine when the car is still. The PCU is typically located near the battery pack.
  • Regenerative Braking System: 
Regenerative Braking System
  • The regenerative braking system captures the energy normally lost during braking and stores it in the battery pack. It helps to improve the fuel efficiency of the HEV.
  • Start-Stop System: 
Start-Stop System
  • The start-stop system acts like a smart switch in a hybrid car (HEV). When you stop at a red light or in traffic, it automatically turns off the regular engine. It helps improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle.
  • Transmission: The transmission in an HEV is often different from that in a traditional vehicle. It’s designed to work seamlessly with both the internal combustion engine and the electric motor, optimizing power delivery and efficiency.
  • Fuel Tank: 
Fuel Tank
  • The fuel tank stores the gasoline or diesel fuel that the internal combustion engine (ICE) uses for power. While an HEV primarily relies on its electric motor and battery for propulsion, it still has an internal combustion engine that can be used when needed, such as during high-demand situations or when the battery is depleted.

Components of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

Each component of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle is listed below:

  • Internal Combustion Engine (ICE): The ICE is the primary power source for a PHEV. It is typically a gasoline engine, but some PHEVs use diesel or hybrid-specific engines. The ICE is located in the front of the vehicle and drives the wheels directly or through a transmission.
  • Electric Motor: The electric motor is the secondary power source for a PHEV. A battery pack powers it and can be used to propel the vehicle on its own or assist the ICE. The electric motor is typically located in the front or rear of the vehicle, depending on the vehicle’s layout.
  • Battery Pack: The battery pack stores the energy that powers the electric motor. It comprises a series of individual battery cells, which are connected in a series-parallel arrangement to provide the desired voltage and current output. The battery pack is typically under the vehicle’s floor to help lower the center of gravity and improve handling.
  • Powertrain Control Unit (PCU): It manages how the regular engine, electric motor, and battery work together to make your car go. It also handles the special brakes that charge the battery and the system that stops the engine when you’re not driving. The PCU is typically located near the battery pack.
  • Regenerative Braking System: The regenerative braking system captures the energy usually lost during braking and stores it in the battery pack. It helps improve the fuel efficiency of the PHEV.
  • Charging Port: 
Charging Port
  • The charging port connects the PHEV to an external power source to charge the battery pack. The charging port is typically under the hood or near the vehicle’s rear.

Components of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

The components of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, along with their diagrams, are represented in the following:

  • Fuel Cell Stack:
Fuel Cell Stack
  • It is a device that turns oxygen and hydrogen into electricity, which powers an electric motor. To produce the appropriate output voltage and current, a number of separate fuel cells are connected in a series-parallel configuration.
  • Hydrogen Tank: 
Hydrogen Tank
  • The hydrogen fuel for the fuel cell stack is kept in the hydrogen tank. Usually composed of carbon fibers or composite materials, the hydrogen tank is pressurized to contain hydrogen gas.
  • Air Compressor: 
Air Compressor
  • The air utilized by the fuel cell stack is compressed by the air compressor. This compressor usually gets its power from a nearby electric motor that makes things move using electricity. It is placed close to the fuel cell stack.
  • Electric Motor: This component converts the electricity from the fuel cell stack into mechanical energy that can be used to power the vehicle’s wheels. Electric motors are typically more efficient than gasoline engines, producing zero emissions.
  • Power Inverter: The power inverter converts the direct current (DC) power from the fuel cell stack into alternating current (AC) power that the electric motor can use. The power inverter is typically located near the electric motor.
  • Controller: The controller is like a computer that ensures the fuel cell stack, electric motor, and power inverter work together correctly. It also handles the regenerative braking system. Usually, you can find the controller near the fuel cell stack.
  • Regenerative Braking System: The regenerative braking system captures the energy normally lost during braking and stores it in the battery pack. It helps to improve the fuel efficiency of the FCEV.
  • Battery Pack: The battery pack stores the energy produced by the fuel cell stack when it is not being used to power the electric motor. When the fuel cell stack is not generating enough electricity, the battery pack additionally supplies power to the electric motor.

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Tools for Electric Vehicle Diagram Creation

Below is a list of a few tools that can be used for the creation of an electric vehicle diagram:

  • AutoCAD: A popular software for creating detailed technical drawings and diagrams, including those related to EV systems and components.
  • Visio: Microsoft Visio is widely used for creating various types of diagrams, including EV system schematics and layouts.
  • Lucidchart: A cloud-based diagramming tool that allows collaboration on creating EV-related diagrams, such as system architectures and wiring diagrams.
  • Draw.io: An online diagramming tool that’s free to use and suitable for creating EV-related schematics and flowcharts. 
  • Dia- Dia is a diagramming software, which is free and open-source. It’s not as easy to use as some other tools mentioned, but it’s really powerful for making detailed electric vehicle diagrams.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we’ve journeyed through the world of electric vehicle drawing, covering key topics like types of Electric vehicles, their components, and how to illustrate them. With this knowledge, you can bring these eco-friendly vehicles to life on paper and join the drive for a cleaner and greener tomorrow. So, pick up your tools, let the creativity flow, and continue strengthening your skills in the exciting world of electric vehicle drawing.

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