Most of us have used Siri, Google Assistant, Cortana or even Bixby at some point in our daily lives. What are they? They are our digital personal assistants. They help us find useful information when you ask for it using your voice; you can say “Hey Siri, show me the closest fast food restaurant.” or “Who is the 21st President of the United States?” and the assistant will respond with the relevant information by either going through your phone or searching the web. This is a small example of artificial intelligence! Let’s read more about it!
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What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence is the ability of a computer program to learn and think.
John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence in the year 1950
He said, “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions, and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves.”
But, how to make AI think or learn by themselves? Let’s find out in the next section:
How does Artificial Intelligence work?
Computers are good at following processes i.e. a sequence of steps to execute a task. If we give a computer, steps to execute a task the computer should easily be able to complete it.
The steps are nothing but Algorithms. An algorithm can be as simple as printing two numbers or predicting who will win elections in the coming year!
So, how can we accomplish this?
Let’s take an example of predicting the weather forecast for 2019.
First, we need a LOT of data. Let’s take the data from 2006 – 2018.
Now, lets divide this data in 80:20 ratio. 80% of the data is going to be our labelled data, and the rest 20% of the data is going to be our test data.
Reminder: We have the output for the entire 100% of data which has been acquired from 2006 – 2018.
What happens once we have collected the data? We are going to feed the labelled data i.e. the 80% of data into the machine. Here, the algorithm is learning from the data which has been fed into it.
Next, we need to test the algorithm. We feed the test data, i.e. the remaining 20% of the data to the machine. The machine gives us the output. Now, we cross verify the output given by the machine with the actual output of the data and check for its accuracy. Once we check for accuracy and we are not satisfied with the model, we tweak the algorithm to give us the precise output or at least somewhere close to the actual output. Once we are satisfied with the model, we then feed the data to the model so that it can predict 2019’s weather forecast.
With more sets of data being fed into the system, the output becomes more and more precise.
Again, none of the algorithms are a 100% correct. None of the machines have been able to attain 100% efficiency. Hence, the output what we receive from the machines are never one hundred percent correct.
Large amount of data is first combined with fast, iterative processing and smart algorithms, which allows the system to learn from the patters in the data. AI is a vast subject and its field of study includes many theories, methods, technology, and it also has major subfields under it. They are:
- Machine Learning – Machine Learning is the learning in which machine can learn by its own from the examples and the experience.
The program for this machine need not be specific. The machine tends to change or correct its algorithm from the examples and experiences.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are the two most commonly misinterpreted words. They are not the same thing, but the understanding that they are, leads to some confusion.
Both these terms arise repeatedly when the topic is Big Data or Data Analytics, or something related to these subjects which is making its rounds around the world.
- Neural Networks – Artificial Neural Networks were inspired by the biological network, i.e. the animal brain. Artificial Neural Networks are one of the most important tools in machine learning to find patterns in the data, which are far too complex for a human to figure out and teach the machine to recognize.
- Deep Learning – In Deep Learning a large amount of data is analyzed and the algorithm would perform the task repeatedly, each time twisting/editing the algorithm a little to improve the outcome a little for the better.
- Cognitive Computing – The ultimate goal of cognitive computing is to imitate human thought process in a computer model. How can the computer mimic the way the human thinks? Using self-learning algorithms, pattern recognition by neural networks, and natural language processing the computer can mimic the human’s way of thinking.
- Computer Vision – Computer vision works on allowing computer to see, recognize, and process images the same way as the human vision does, and then provides an appropriate output. Computer vision is very closely related with artificial intelligence. The computer must understand what it sees, and then analyze it accordingly. This comes under AI.
- Natural Language Processing – Natural language processing means communicating with the machines using natural language like English
Now that we understand Artificial Intelligence, you would want to know is it really in demand. Here is quote from Forbes
“Machines and algorithms in the workplace are expected to create 133 million new roles, but cause 75 million jobs to be displaced by 2022 according to a new report from the World Economic Forum (WEF) called “.” This means that the growth of artificial intelligence could create 58 million net new jobs in the next few years.”
Interesting, isn’t it? If you are looking out for a change in your job, then Artificial Intelligence can be your best bet for a sustainable career choice.
There is a huge demand for AI professionals right now. Let us look at some, which will back this fact.
Top 10 jobs which require AI skills
Earlier, we discussed about what the market requirement is, as of today. Mentioned below are the roles that have been mentioned very frequently. It also shows the % of jobs available even after 60 days of the job opening.
Top paying AI jobs
Once we identified which jobs most frequently sought AI skills, we wanted to know how much they paid to get a sense of how competitive the market for these jobs is.
What are the applications of Artificial Intelligence?
Every time you make a transaction online/offline, you will receive a message from your respective bank asking if you have made that transaction sing your credit or debit card. They also ask you to report that transaction if you haven’t made it. The bank systems flood the Artificial Intelligence system with both fraudulent and non-fraudulent transactions. The AI system would then learn from these transactions which are fraudulent and which are not based on the huge training set it is given.
Did you know that Mark Zuckerberg had created Synapse, a music player which suggested songs which the user was likely to listen? Netflix, Spotify and Pandora also recommends music and movies based on your past interests and past purchases. They accomplish this by garnering the choices you had made and inputting them into a learning algorithm.
The market size of AI software is expected to reach up to $36 million by 2025, these opportunities has caused retailers to pay attention to Artificial Intelligence. Thus, majority of big and small scale industries, are applying AI tools in new ways across the entire product – right from the assembling stage to the post-sale customer service interactions.
AI autopilot in commercial flights – The pilot only needs to put the system in autopilot mode and then majority of the flight will be taken care of by the AI itself. It is reported by New York Times that only seven minutes of human intervention is required for the average flight of a Boeing plane. That pertains only for takeoff and landing.
There is a growing fear that widespread implementation of AI will erode human jobs. Not just commoners but entrepreneurs like Elon Musk are voicing alert at the growing pace of AI research. They view that AI systems may give place to large scale violence in the world. But that is a very myopic way of looking at things. In recent decades’ technology has grown rapidly and massively. For every job lost to technology there are many other vacancies. If it had been the case where a new technology will take all our jobs, then majority of the world would have been jobless. Similar to Elon Musk, even Internet during its inception garnered much negative reviews. It is now obvious that internet just can’t be replaced. You wouldn’t be able to read this blog if that had been the case. Similarly, AI will rise through its potential and goodwill and benefit the mankind in general.
Dive deep into the world of Deep Learning AI through Intellipaat’s course on Artificial Intelligence & Deep Learning Course with Tensorflow.
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