Introduction to Python Programming
What is Python used for? Let’s begin with this Python tutorial in order to make you understand what Python programming is. We will start from Python basics.
As per Stack Overflow, Python language is one among the fastest growing programming languages in the world. Forbes says that Python language has seen the 7th largest increase in demand in the past few years. Due to this, there is an acute shortage of skilled and certified Python professionals. Hence, job opportunities for Python programming have increased, tremendously. According to Indeed, the average annual salary of a Python Developer in the US is $123,000.
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Python language is one of the most popular programming languages of the 21st century. It is a general-purpose language and has been here around for over 20 years. Python Syntax is also extremely simple and elegant. With its gentle and gradual learning curve, Python is considered as the best introductory programming language. I hope the introduction to python is clear to you by now.
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So, let’s jump onto the other topics in this python tutorial and learn python for beginners.
Here is the list of topics covered in this Python Tutorial, just in case you want to jump right into a specific one:
- Why Python?
- What Can Python Do?
- Python 2 Vs. Python 3
- Beginners’ Tips for Learning Python Programming Online
- When it comes to automating the predictive model, Python language is the first choice for Data Scientists
- Python language provides some of the awesome and robust libraries for Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning.
- For deploying Machine Learning models in production, Data Scientist prefers Python programming over R.
- It is easy to integrate Python with Big Data frameworks such as Spark and Hadoop.
- Python language has huge online community support.
What Can Python Do?
Python is a general-purpose language, which means that it can be used to write software applications in a variety of domains without being restricted to a particular domain. This feature sets Python apart from the domain-specific languages. Being a general-purpose language, Python can do a number of interesting things. Some of them are listed here in this python tutorial below:
- Python programming can be used to write an application using Tkinterwhich use graphics rather than text to interact with the users.
- Python language can be used to create games, using its modules such as Pygameor Kivy.
- Python can also automate boring stuff such as sending emails, uploading status on a Facebook account, and more
- Python can also be used to experiment with computer vision using its openCV library. It is particularly used in robotics to enable the robots to see and avoid obstacles while moving.
- Drawing complex graphs and visualizing the data can be by Python, using its matplotliband similar libraries.
- Being one of the top choices for data analysis, Python can also mine Twitter Data. How convenient is that! Especially, if you consider the fact that in today’s world there are literally hordes of data created every second.
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Difference Between Python 2 and Python 3
Since the release of the new version of Python, i.e., Python 3, which is explained the most in this Python tutorial, there has been a bit of debate in the coding community over deciding which Python version is better. Whether Python 3 is better than Python 2 is a rather subjective question, and the selection between the two eventually comes down to personal preference. But, one must know how Python 2 and Python 3 are different. Python 3 is a fundamentally different version from Python 2.
Check out all the key differences between Python 2 and 3:
|Basis of the Difference||Python 2||Python 3|
|In Python 2, you treat print as a statement rather than as a function, and hence there is no need to put the text inside parentheses.||In Python 3, you explicitly treat print as a function, which means the text you want to print has to be inside the parentheses or you will get a syntax error.|
|Integer Division||In Python 2, the interpreter treats the numbers that you type without any decimal points as integers which might lead to unexpected outcomes of certain mathematical operations, e.g., 5/2 in Python 2 will give the result as 2 instead of 2.5. To get the result as 2.5, you will have to type 5.0/2.0.||In Python 3, the interpreter automatically identifies the Python Data Types on the basis of the type of the value. So, the result of 5/2 in Python 3 is by default calculated as 2.5, which is way more convenient than Python 2.|
|Input||In Python 2, you use the raw_input() function to take inputs from users. This function only returns the string representing the user’s input which you have to convert into the desired data type.||In Python 3, the input() method is used to take inputs from the user. Here too, the type of the input is automatically interpreted in Python 3.|
|String Type||The implicit string type in Python 2 is ASCII.||The implicit string type in Python 3 is Unicode.|
Beginners’ Tips for Learning Python Programming Online
While learning as a beginner through this Python tutorial, you should follow these tips which will help you deal with some new concepts:
Tip #1: Practice Python every day
It is important to have consistency while learning any new programming language. It is important that you should make a commitment to write code every day, as it will play with your muscle memory which is a very important part in programming. Increase your level of coding gradually but never stop playing around with the Python basics coding part. You may end up learning something new every time you practice Python coding even about the python basics.
This python tutorial will also help you keep a good grasp of Python basics. Here are some examples for you to exercise:
Print the type of an element:
>> a = “this is a string” >>> type(a) >>> <class ‘str’> #output
Use docstring to add multi-line descriptive descriptions in your code:
>>def printOutput(str): >>>“’This function will print the passed string’” >>>print (str) >>>return;
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>>> import sklearn >>> import pandas as pd >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Perform operations and play around with them:
>> a = ‘Intellipaat’ >>> a.upper() >>> ‘INTELLIPAAT’
The list does not end here, there are plenty other basic things that you can practice.
Tip #2: Use Interactive Python shell
Whether you are new to Python data structures (dictionaries, lists, strings, etc.) or you are debugging an application, the best learning tool is the Interactive Python Shell.
To use the Interactive Python Shell, first, you should install Python on your computer. This Python tutorial on the step-by-step Installation procedure of Python will help you learn how to install Python in your system. To activate and use the Interactive Python Shell, simply open the terminal on your system and run Python 2 or Python 3 depending on your version of installation. Once the shell is open, you can start writing the code.
Tip #3: Debug your code
Hitting a bug is normal when you start writing a complex program. Don’t get frustrated here; it happens with everyone! Instead, take these moments as pride and think of yourself as a bug bounty hunter. Debugging your own code will help you learn even more.
It is important to have a methodological approach while debugging the code, which will help you find where your code has broken down. Going through your code step by step in its executable order and making sure that each part of your code works fine is the way you should go about it.
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Tip #4: Try to build some small projects
Always try to make up a small project for each concept. This python tutorial will help you build confidence for writing Python programs, as well as this will help you develop the muscle memory. Once you have a solid foundation on the basic data structures (Python Dictionaries, Python Strings, Python sets, Python Lists, etc.), object-oriented programming, and writing classes, you will be ready to deploy these programming concepts in real life. Keep writing small codes to keep your concepts clear while learning through this Python Tutorial.
Tip #5: Contribute to open source
Python is an open-source language which means that its source code is available for the public to download, use, and modify. Anyone can collaborate and be an active member of Python community. You have access to the code written and produced by big companies. Working with these codes will be a very valuable learning experience. You can even reach out for other community members whenever you hit a bug in your coding.
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Table of Contents
Fundamentals of Python
Python Fundamentals: Fundamentals of Python consists of discussion of basic building blocks of Python programming language. Here, “Fundamentals of Python” is divided into the following categories. And we will be discussing each topic separately. Statements Expressions Assignment Statements Indentations Comments Single-line comments Multi-line comment doc-staring comments Variables Constants Tokens Identifiers Keywords Literals Operators Watch this Python Pandas Tutorial Video for Read More
What is Python?
What is Python?
Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language with an elegant syntax that allows programmers to focus more on problem-solving than on syntax errors. One of the primary goals of Python Developers is keeping it fun to use. Python has become a big buzz in the field of modern software development, infrastructure management, and especially in Data Science and Artificial Read More
Lets start off by looking at Python history. Python was developed at a time when many other dynamic and open-source programming languages like Tcl, Perl, Ruby etc. were also being actively developed and gaining popularity. Watch this Python Projects Video for Beginners: [videothumb class="col-md-12" id="g6iVdilJNMQ" alt="Python Tutorial" title="PythonTutorial"] The below-given image depicts the python logo then vs Python Read More
How to Download and Install Python?
Python Installation and Setup Guide
To get started working with Python 3, first of all You will need to have access to the Python interpreter. There are numerous ways to accomplish this: You can directly obtain it from the Python Software Foundation Youbsite at Python.org. In operating systems like Linux, there will be a package manager which can be run Read More
Python Syntax - Python Coding with Examples
Python was specifically designed to be a highly readable language The Python Syntax is made for ease of use and have made it one of the most used language among freshers as well as experts. Python syntax is English like which makes it much easier to write, read and understand a python script Read More
Comments in Python
Comments in Python
In this module of Python tutorial, we will learn about Python comments. We will also learn about the different types of Python comments and the way to use them. Writing Python Comments Comments in any programming language are used to increase the readability of the code. Similarly, in Python, when the program starts getting complicated, one of Read More
Data Types in Python
Data Types in Python
In this module of the Python tutorial, we will learn about the Python data types. We will further learn about the dynamic typing feature in Python and different data types in Python such as (Python Numbers, Python String, Python List, Python Tuple & Python Set) Python Data Types: An Overview One of the most crucial part Read More
Variables in Python – Global & Static Variables
What Is a Variable in Python?
A variable is a memory address that can change, and when the memory address cannot change then that variable is known as a constant. Variable is a name of the memory location where data is stored. Once a variable is stored, the space is allocated in memory. It defines a variable using a combination Read More
Numbers in Python
Numbers in Python
In Python, the number data type is used to store numeric values. are an immutable data type. Being an immutable data type means that if we change the value of an already allocated number data type, then that would result in a newly allocated object. In this module, we will delve deeper into the Read More
String in Python
What is a Python String and String Function in Python?
Python string is an ordered collection of characters which is used to represent and store the text-based information. Strings are stored as individual characters in a contiguous memory location. It can be accessed from both directions: forward and backward. Characters are nothing but symbols. Strings are immutable Data Types in Read More
List in Python
Lists are Python’s most flexible ordered collection object type. It can also be referred to as a sequence that is an ordered collection of objects that can host objects of any data type, such as Python Numbers, Python Strings and nested lists as well. Lists are one of the most used and versatile Python Data Types. In this Read More
Tuple in Python
What is Tuple in Python
Tuple data type in Python is a collection of various immutable Python objects separated by commas. Tuples are much similar to Python Lists, but they are syntactically different, i.e., in lists we use square brackets while in tuples we use parentheses. In this module, we will learn all about the tuple data type in order Read More
Set in Python
A set in Python is mutable, iterable, and does not have any duplicate elements. It is an unordered collection of elements which means that a set is a collection that stores elements of different Python Data Types. Remember that a set in Python doesn’t index the elements in a particular order. Let us look at some of Read More
Dictionary in Python
Python dictionary is yet another unordered collection of elements. The difference between Python dictionary and other unordered Python data types such as sets lies in the fact that unlike sets, a dictionary contains keys and values rather than just elements. Like lists, Python dictionaries can also be changed and modified, but unlike Python lists the values in Read More
Operators in Python
In Python, we have a set of special symbols that perform various kinds of operations such as logical operations, mathematical operations, and more. These symbols are called Python operators. For every symbol or operator, there is a unique kind of operation. The values on which the operators perform their respective operations are known as operands. In this Read More
Type conversion in Python
Type Conversion in Python with Examples
The process of converting a Python data type into another data type is known as type conversion. There are mainly two types of type conversion methods in Python, namely, implicit type conversion and explicit type conversion. Watch this video on Python: [videothumb class="col-md-12" id="e9p0_NB3WrM" alt="Python Tutorial" title="PythonTutorial"] In this module, we will go through Read More
Python If, Else Statements
Python Conditional Statements
Control Flow Statements: If Else in Python Like other programming languages, there are some control flow statements in Python as well. Control flow refers to the order in which the program should be executed. Generally, the control flow of a program runs from top to bottom. However, the control flow statements break the general top-to-bottom order of execution by including Read More
Python While Loop
Control Flow Statements: Python While Loop in Python
As discussed in the previous module, we know that Python, like other programming languages, consists of some control flow statements. One of the control flow statements that we have already studied about in the previous module is the Python if else statement. Another one of the control flow statements is loops. Loops Read More
For Loop in Python
Control Flow Statements – For Loop in Python 3
For loops in Python, just like any other language, are used to repeat a block of code for a fixed number of times. For loop is yet another control flow statement since the control of the program is continuously transferred to the beginning of the for loop to execute the body Read More
Functions in Python
Functions are used to group together a certain number of related instructions. These are reusable blocks of codes written to carry out a specific task. A function might or might not require inputs. Functions are only executed when they are specifically called. Depending on the task a function is supposed to carry out, it might or might Read More
Lambda Function in Python
Lambda Function in Python
As discussed in the previous module, we know that there are three types of Python Functions. One of them is an anonymous function. Anonymous functions are the functions without a name. Now, to define a normal function, we use the keyword, ‘def’. Similarly, to define an anonymous function, we use the keyword, ‘lambda’. Since anonymous functions are Read More
Python Built in Functions with Examples
Built in Functions in Python Back in the Python Functions module, we learnt that there are three types of functions, namely, user-defined functions in Python, lambda functions in Python, and built in functions in Python. In this module, we will learn all that we need to know about built in functions in Python. So, without further ado, let’s get started. Read More
What is an Array in Python 3?
An array is a data structure that can contain or hold a fixed number of elements that are of the same Python data type. An array is composed of an element and an index. Index in an array is the location where an element resides. All elements have their respective indices. Index of Read More
Python Classes and Objects
Classes and Objects in Python
Python is an object-oriented language and almost every entity in Python is an object, which means that programmers extensively use classes and objects while coding in Python. Objects in Python are basically an encapsulation of Python variables and functions, that they get from classes. Watch this video on ‘Python Classes and Objects’: [videothumb class="col-md-12" id="c4EG6O299tY" Read More
Modules in Python
When we write a program in Python Interpreter or Python Shell and then exit from Shell, all definitions that we have included in our program get lost. We can’t use those definitions again. While practicing and learning Python, it may not seem as much of a problem, but in certain cases, for example, while working on a Read More
Python Datetime Module
There is a Python module which is comprised of various functions to deal, manipulate, and work with dates and date objects. This module is known as the Python datetime module. We can simply start working with dates by importing this module and using the functions and classes it provides. In this module, we will learn about how Read More
JSON in Python
What is Regular Expression in Python?
Python Regular Expressions or Python RegEx are patterns that permit us to ‘match’ various string values in a variety of ways. A pattern is simply one or more characters that represent a set of possible match characters. In regular expression matching, we use a character (or a set of characters) to represent the strings Read More
What is PIP in Python?
PIP is a Python package management system which can also be used to install various software written in Python and Python modules and their respective dependencies. Watch this video on ‘Python Classes and Objects’: [videothumb class="col-md-12" id="5GYeia8IRbg" alt="Data Warehouse Tutorial" title="PythonTutorial"] In this module, we will learn about PIP, covering the following topics: How to Install Read More
Python File Handling
File Handling in Python - Learn Python File Handling for Beginners
Python file handling operations also known as Python I/O deal with two types of files. They are: Text files Binary files Even though the two file types may look the same on the surface, they encode data differently. A text file is structured as a sequence of lines. And, Read More
Exception Handling in Python
Python Exception Handling
What is Exception Handling in Python? Well, before we get you started on Exception Handling in Python, let’s learn about it from the beginning. It is obvious for a developer to encounter a few errors or mistakes in their code file. But what if developers could minimize these errors? Wouldn’t it be great? There are exception handling Read More
What Is Enumerate in Python?
Before we jump into understanding What is enumerate in Python, let us unfold the chapter by finding out what enumerate Python is and what it means to enumerate something. The term ‘enumerate’ is commonly used in mathematics and computer science, which is nothing but ordered listing of all elements in a collection. Watch this Python Read More
Queue in Python
What is Python Queue?
Python queue is an important concept in data structure. Queue in Python is nothing but data item containers. With the help of queue in Python, we can control the flow of our tasks. Say, we are manipulating data that are collected from a website and then writing the manipulated data into a .txt file. Now, if Read More
Python NumPy Tutorial: Learn Python NumPy from Experts
Python NumPy Tutorial for Beginners
In this Python NumPy Tutorial, we will be covering One of the robust and most commonly used Python libraries i.e. Python NumPy. Python library is a collection of script modules which are accessible to a Python program. It helps simplify the programming process and remove the need to rewrite commonly used commands again and again. Read More
What is SciPy in Python: Learn with an Example
Let’s start off with this SciPy Tutorial with an example. Scientists and researchers are likely to gather enormous amount of information and data, which are scientific and technical, from their exploration, experimentation, and analysis. Dealing with such huge amount of data becomes a hindrance to them. That is, calculating and computing Read More
Scikit learn Python Tutorial
Introduction to Python Scikit-learn
Python Scikit-learn is a free Machine Learning library for Python. It’s a very useful tool for data mining and data analysis and can be used for personal as well as commercial use. Python Scikit-learn lets users perform various Machine Learning tasks and provides a means to implement Machine Learning in Python. It needs to work with Read More
Python Pandas Tutorial
What is Pandas in Python?
So, lets now tell you What is Pandas in Python. Pandas is a Python library which is a simple yet powerful tool for Data Science. Python Pandas is one of the most widely used Python packages. This package comprises many data structures and tools for effective data manipulation and analysis. Python Pandas is used everywhere including commercial Read More
Matplotlib Python Tutorial – Python Matplotlib Examples – Intellipaat
What is Matplotlib in Python?
Well, you’ll need to read on in order to get an answer to that question. Handling of data is a skillful art. In the trending technological world, there is a massive amount of data that is being consumed, as well as wasted. Thus, handling this data in a rather effective Read More
Python Cheat Sheet Basics
Python Basics Cheat Sheet
Are you finding difficult in remembering all the syntax that you need to work with Python for Data Science? Guys, don’t worry if you are a beginner and have no idea about how Python works, this Python for Data Science cheat sheet will give you a quick reference of the basics that you must know to Read More
Data Structures with Python Cheat Sheet
Data Structure is a collection of data types and set of rules with a format of organizing, managing and storage which can be used for efficient accessing and modification. Data structures are used in every field for storing and organizing data in the computer. This Python Data Structure cheat sheet will help you understand what Data Structure is and Read More
Numpy Cheat Sheet
Python NumPy Cheat Sheet
Whether you are a professional and have been working with Python for quite some time or you are a fresher and have just started using python, you must have heard of NumPy, a python library for numerical operations. It is extensively used but regardless of how popular it is, wouldn’t you agree that it’s practically not possible Read More
Scikit-Learn Cheat Sheet
Python Scikit-Learn Cheat Sheet
If you are finding it hard to remember all the different commands to perform different operations in Scikit Learn then don’t worry, you are not alone, it happens more often than you would think. Watch this Python Projects Video for Beginners: [videothumb class="col-md-12" id="g6iVdilJNMQ" alt="Python Tutorial" title="PythonTutorial"] At Intellipaat, we make sure that our learners get Read More
Pandas Cheat Sheet
Python Pandas Cheat Sheet
Simple, expressive and arguably one of the most important libraries in Python, not only does it make real-world Data Analysis significantly easier but provides an optimized feature of being significantly fast. It is common that for those who just started Data Science journey with Python and Pandas library might find it overwhelming to remember all those functions Read More
Python List Comprehension
List Comprehension in Python
Previously in this Python tutorial, we have already learned what Python lists are and how to use them. We have also understood list comprehension Python. In this section, we will go deep into list comprehension Python and understand why we need it. Watch this Python Projects Video for Beginners: [videothumb class="col-md-12" id="g6iVdilJNMQ" alt="Python Tutorial" title="PythonTutorial"] Following Read More
Web Scraping Python Tutorial for Beginners
Web Scraping Using Python
Web scraping Python has been around for a while now, but it has become more popular in the past decade. Web Scraping using Python is very easy. With the help of Python, extracting data from a web page can be done automatically. In this module, we will discuss web scraping in Python from scratch. Also, this Read More