Spring is an open-source development framework for Enterprise Java. The core features of the Spring Framework can be used in developing any Java application, but there are extensions for building web applications on top of the Java EE platform. Spring Framework targets to make Java EE development easier to use and promotes good programming practice by enabling a POJO-based programming model.
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The Spring Framework provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java-based enterprise applications—on any kind of deployment platforms. A key element of Spring is infrastructural support at the application level: Spring focuses on the ‘plumbing’ of enterprise applications so that teams can focus on the application-level business logic, without having unnecessary ties to specific deployment environments.
Java-based configuration option enables users to write most of their Spring configuration without XML but with the help of few Java-based annotations.
Annotation @Configuration indicates that the class can be used by the Spring IoC container as a source of bean definitions. The @Bean annotation tells Spring that a method annotated with @Bean will return an object that should be registered as a bean in the Spring application context.
Spring provides the following standard events:
The basic modules of the Spring Framework are:
Spring supports two types of dependency injections:
Setter-based DI is realized by calling setter methods on the user’s beans after invoking a no-argument constructor or no-argument static factory method to instantiate their bean.
Constructor-based DI is realized by invoking a constructor with a number of arguments, each representing a collaborator.
Spring IoC creates objects, wires them together, configures them, and manages their complete life cycle from creation to destruction. The Spring container uses dependency injection (DI) to manage the components that make up an application.
The objects that form the backbone of the users’ application and that are managed by the Spring IoC container are called beans. A bean is an object that is instantiated, assembled, and otherwise managed by a Spring IoC container. These beans are created with the configuration metadata that the users supply to the container.
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The Spring Framework supports five scopes, three of which are available only if users use a web-aware ApplicationContext.
The following is the sequence of a bean life cycle in Spring:
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