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What is Node.js? A Complete Guide
Updated on 06th Apr, 23 350 Views


Built on the V8 JavaScript engine in Chrome, Node.js is a single-threaded, cross-platform runtime environment. It is free and open-source software that allows you to create real-time and scalable network applications.

All your doubts will be resolved in this blog, so quickly have a view of the points to be discussed

Points to Ponder

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What is NodeJS?

  • Node.js is an event-driven, asynchronous runtime for JavaScript that is based on the V8 JavaScript engine from Chrome.
  • Node.js provides a single-threaded event-io model that enables the orchestration of tasks that are being performed in parallel by using the event-callback/non-blocking approach.
  • The need for a large memory footprint is not necessary to support multiple connections.
  • Node.js can be used to implement a wide range of services in addition to developing web applications.
  • Servers and Backends
  • Frontends
  • Creating API
  • Microservices
  • Automation and scripting

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Why NodeJS?

  • For creating server-side and network applications, Node.js has taken over as the standard tool. Why is this:
  • Node.js is very quick: Its library is incredibly quick at executing code because it was created using the V8 JavaScript engine from Google Chrome.
  • Node Package Manager (NPM): With more than 50,000 bundles, Node Package Manager makes it simple to import any functionality needed for an application.

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Architecture of NodeJS

  • The foundation of Node.JS is the single-threaded event loop model.
  • The JavaScript Event Loop Model serves as the foundation for the majority of its processing.
  • To better understand the Node.js architecture, let’s go through the following two scenarios:

Situation #1

  • The client sends a request to the server.
request to the server
  • The event loop receives the request and records it.
  • The node can carry out non-blocking input-output operations thanks to the Single Thread Event Loop.
Thread Event Loop
  • To determine whether the incoming request involves any database interaction or complex computations, it is first examined.
  • The aforementioned request is prepared because it doesn’t require any complicated operations, and the client is then sent the response.
sent the response in node.js
  • Scenario #1 Diagram Explanation
  • In Case 1, the client contacts the server with request (a).
  • The Event Loop contains a record for Request(a).
  • The Event Loop then determines whether the request(a) contains any complex operations or database interactions.
  • Since the incoming request(a) does not involve any complex calculations, Node js immediately begins processing it, prepares the response, and sends it back to the client.
  • Situation #2
server with the request in node.js
  • The client contacts the server with the request.
  • The client submits the request to the server, as can be seen above.

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Architecture for Node.js

Architecture for Node.js
  • The Event Loop records the incoming request.
  • Following that, the Event Loop determines whether the incoming request involves any sophisticated operations, database queries, or file system interactions.
  • The Event Loop consults the Internal Thread Pool, a feature of the Nodejs Server, to determine whether the incoming request involves database interaction.
Event Loop consults in Node.js
  • The Nodejs Server’s internal thread pool is made up of threads that are in charge of processing requests that involve communication with the file system or a database.
  • A thread, which is also referred to as a lightweight process, is a path of execution within a process.
  • The Event Loop checks the Internal Thread Pool thread’s availability to carry out the request.
  • The request is given to the thread if it is available.
  • The assigned thread is then in charge of processing the request, creating a response, and providing the Event Loop with it.
  • Finally, the response is returned to the client by the Event Loop.

Scenario #2’s explanation in a diagram

  • In Case 2, the client communicates request(b) to the server.
  • The Event Loop has Recorded Request (b).
  • The Event Loop then determines whether the request (b) involves interacting with a database or requires performing any complex operations.
  • Because the incoming request(b) involves interaction with the database and involves heavy computations, Node.js checks to see if there are any threads in the Internal Thread Pool that are free.
  • Request (b) is assigned to the thread as soon as it is determined that it is available to handle request(b).
  • The task of processing the request, composing the response, and sending it back to the client is then left to the thread.

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How Does Node.js Work?

  • Node.js differs from other platforms in that it has a specific workflow application.
  • Because it runs as a single process, it doesn’t start a new thread for each request.
  • A thread is a group of instructions that the server must carry out.
  • Non-blocking I/O operations are used by Node.js; as a result, when a client sends a request to a web server, the single-threaded event loop picks it up and passes it to a worker thread for processing.
  • Node.js will move on to the next task instead of blocking the thread and wasting CPU power while it waits for a response.
  • It can manage a huge number of concurrent requests in this way.

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Use Cases for Node.js

Node.js’s asynchronous architecture and non-blocking I/O capabilities make it a good choice for tasks requiring a lot of data or real-time analytics, popular use cases comprise:

  • Proxies on the server.
  • Using a non-blocking strategy, Node.js can handle a sizable number of concurrent connections.
  • It can be a productive server-side proxy that gathers information from various outside sources.
  • Node.js is sometimes used to create client-side applications that manage assets and proxy or stub API requests.
  • Dashboards for system monitoring
  • You can develop a web-based dashboard to asynchronously monitor the status of numerous services by using the event loop functionality of Node.js.
  • Live and real-time status reports are available for both internal and public services.

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Features of Node.Js

Features of Node.Js
  • Node.JS is a package that has been compiled.
  • Here is a quick summary of the top Node.JS features that have helped the framework become well-known over the years.

Object-oriented programming:

  • JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language, with some exceptions applications.
  • Some common object-oriented procedures aren’t supported by it.
  • The prototypal inheritance technique used by the language enables you to alter any prototype.
  • Once an object is defined, you can change anything by adding or removing methods and performing other operations.
  • The request and response model is the foundation of the entire web.

Two-way data binding.

  • All the changes in one data model have instantly reflected in related views thanks to the two-way data binding.

Request queuing is efficient because Node.JS handles multiple instances of requests at the same time. How is it handled by Node.JS?

  • Node.JS makes use of the non-block I/O system, which is optional. Higher priority is given to requests with quick responses.
  • In comparison to Python or Ruby on Rails, your web applications will run faster thanks to this preference order.
  • As Node.JS is dependent on JavaScript, it is simple to use.
  • Language acquisition is surprisingly simple for new speakers.
  • It’s interesting how much easier it is to install Node. JS.
  • On the official website’s download page, you can find the installers.

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Applications of NodeJS

Applications of NodeJS
  • Internet of Things

IoT applications typically include multiple sensors because small data packets are frequently sent by IoT devices, which can lead to a large number of requests.

Node.js is a wise choice because it can quickly manage these concurrent requests.

  • Data streaming

Netflix and other companies use Node.js for streaming.

Node.js’s lightweight and quick nature, along with the fact that it offers a native streaming API application, are primarily to blame for this.

Users can pipe requests through these streams to stream data directly to their intended destinations.

  • Real-time chats

Due to its single-threaded asynchronous structure, Node.js is well suited to handling real-time communication.

It is frequently used to build chatbots and is simple to scale.

Additional chat features like multi-person chat and group chat are also easily developed using Node.js.

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Advantages of NodeJS

Advantages of NodeJS

Among the many benefits, some are:

  • It is both scalable and lightweight.
  • Lowers the amount of code needed to deliver high performance.
  • The non-blocking input-output module addresses performance issues because it uses asynchronous programming.
  • It is simpler to use thanks to Node.js modules, which resemble a collection of javascript files.
  • It is very effective because it can handle numerous requests.


In conclusion, Node.JS is a fantastic development framework that enables you to create products that can hasten the expansion of your business.

Node.JS will soon be the most sought-after platform due to its high flexibility and scalability, among other things.

Node.JS is a dependable option to meet the changing needs of businesses and advance them because it is stuffed with a powerful debugging style.

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