C Pattern Programs with Source Code
Updated on 06th Dec, 23 9.1K Views

In this blog, you’ll learn the essential concepts of pattern programming and receive hands-on experience designing your patterns, as we are going to cover the basic, intermediate, and advanced C patterns with their source code. 

Table of Contents

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What are C Patterns?

The C pattern typically refers to commonly used practices in the C programming language. These patterns represent established solutions to recurring problems or design approaches that make code more efficient, maintainable, and readable. They consist various aspects of coding, including data structures, algorithms, design paradigms, and optimization techniques. Examples of C patterns include the singleton pattern for ensuring a class has only one instance, the observer pattern for handling communication between objects, and the factory pattern for creating objects without specifying the exact class. These patterns serve as a valuable tool for developers to enhance their code quality and streamline the development process in C.

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Basic C Patterns

Basic C patterns often include programs that demonstrate fundamental concepts such as loops, conditionals, and basic data structures. These basic C patterns help beginners grasp foundational programming concepts while exploring various patterns and shapes through simple code structures. 

Square Pattern

Refer to the code below to display a square pattern:

#include <stdio.h>  
 int main()  
{  
    int n;  
    printf("Enter the number of rows");  
    scanf("%d",&n);  
    for(int i=0;i<n;i++)  
    {  
        for(int j=0;j<n;j++)  
        {  
            printf("*");  
        }  
        printf("\n");  
    }  
    return 0;  
}  

Output:

Right Angled Triangle

Refer to the code below to display a right-angled triangle pattern:

#include <stdio.h>  
  int main()  
{  
    int n;  
    printf("Enter the number of rows: ");  
    scanf("%d",&n);  
    for(int i=1;i<=n;i++)  
    {  
        for(int j=1;j<=i;j++)  
        {  
            printf(" * ");  
        }  
        printf("\n");  
    }  
    return 0;  
}  

Output:

Inverted Right Angle Triangle

Refer to the code below to display an inverted right-angled triangle pattern:

#include <stdio.h>  
  int main()  
{  
    int n,m=1;  
    printf("Enter the number of rows");  
    scanf("%d",&n);  
    for(int i=n;i>=1;i--)  
    {  
        for(int j=1;j<=i-1;j++)  
        {  
          printf(" ");  
        }  
        for(int k=1;k<=m;k++)  
        {  
            printf("*");  
        }  
        printf("\n");  
        m++;  
    }  
    return 0;  
}  

Output:

Pyramid

Refer to the code below to display a pyramid pattern:

#include <stdio.h>  
int main()  
{  
    int n,m;  
    printf("Enter the number of rows: ");  
    scanf("%d",&n);  
    m=n;  
   for(int i=1;i<=n;i++)  
   {  
       for(int j=1;j<=m-1;j++)  
       {  
           printf(" ");  
       }  
       for(int k=1;k<=2*i-1;k++)  
       {  
         printf("*");  
       }  
       m--;  
      printf("\n");  
    }  
    return 0;  
}  

Output:

Alphabetic Pyramid

Refer to the code below to display an alphabetic pyramid pattern:

#include <stdio.h> 
  int main() 

    int rows = 5; 
    for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { 
        for (int j = 0; j < 2 * (rows - i) - 1; j++) { 
            printf(" "); 
        } 
        for (int m = 0; m < 2 * i + 1; m++) { 
            printf("%d ", m + 1); 
        } 
        printf("\n"); 
    } 
    return 0; 
}

Output:

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Intermediate C Patterns

Intermediate C patterns refer to common structures or arrangements of code used in C programming that lie between basic programming constructs and more complex design patterns. These intermediate patterns often involve efficient handling of data structures, conditional statements, loops, and functions to accomplish specific tasks or solve common programming problems. They assist in organizing code, improving readability, and enhancing code reusability. These patterns use techniques for memory management, error handling, algorithm design, or optimizing code performance without necessarily getting into the complexities of full-fledged design patterns typically found in object-oriented programming languages.

Floyd’s Triangle

Below is the code for your reference to print Floyd’s triangle.

#include <stdio.h> 
int main() 

    int rows = 4; 
    int n = 1; 
    // outer loop 
    for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { 
        // innter loop 
        for (int j = 0; j <= i; j++) { 
            printf("%d ", n++); 
        } 
        printf("\n"); 
    } 
    return 0; 
}

Output:

Diamond Pattern

Below is the code for your reference to print a diamond pattern.

#include <stdio.h> 
int main() 

    int n = 5; 
    // first outer loop 
    for (int i = 0; i < 2 * n - 1; i++) { 
        int row; 
        if (i < n) { 
            row = 2 * (n - i) - 1; 
        } 
        else { 
            row = 2 * (i - n + 1) + 1; 
        } 
        // whitespaces 
        for (int j = 0; j < row; j++) { 
            printf(" "); 
        } 
        // stars
        for (int k = 0; k < 2 * n - row; k++) { 
            printf("* "); 
        } 
        printf("\n"); 
    } 
    return 0; 
}

Output:

Hollow Pyramid

Below is the code for your reference to print a hollow pyramid.

#include <stdio.h> 
int main() 

    int rows = 5; 
    // first outer loop 
    for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { 
        // first inner loop 
        for (int j = 0; j < 2 * (rows - i) - 1; j++) { 
            printf(" "); 
        } 
        // second inner loop to print stars * and inner spaces
        for (int k = 0; k < 2 * i + 1; k++) { 
            if (k == 0 || k == 2 * i || i == rows - 1) { 
                printf("* "); 
            } 
            else { 
                printf("  "); 
            } 
        } 
        printf("\n"); 
    } 
    return 0; 
}

Output:

Butterfly Pattern

Below is the code for your reference to print a butterfly pattern.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
void Star(int n)
{
while (n--)
{
printf("* ");
}
}
void Spaces(int n)
{
while (n--)
{
printf("  ");
}
}
int main()
{
int height;
printf("Enter the height of the pattern: ");
scanf("%d", &height);
printf("The pattern of height %d: \n\n", height);
int spaces = 2 * (height - 1);
for (int i = 1; i <= height; i++)
{
Star(i);
Spaces(spaces);
Star(i);
printf("\n");
spaces -= 2;
}
spaces = 2;
for (int i = height - 1; i > 0; i--)
{
    Star(i);
Spaces(spaces);
Star(i);
printf("\n");
spaces += 2;
}
return 0;
}

Output:

Rhombus Pattern

Below is the code for your reference to print a rhombus pattern.

#include <stdio.h> 
int main() 

    int rows = 5; 
    // first outer loop 
    for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { 
      // first inner loop for white spaces 
        for (int j = 0; j < rows - i - 1; j++) { 
            printf(" "); 
        } 
        // second inner loop for * 
        for (int k = 0; k < rows; k++) { 
            printf("* "); 
        } 
        printf("\n"); 
    } 
    return 0; 
}

Output:

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Advanced C Patterns

Advanced C patterns refer to sophisticated and complex structures created using the C programming language. These patterns use various language features, including pointers, memory allocation, loops, and conditional statements, to craft complex designs and solutions. They often involve manipulations of data structures, such as arrays, linked lists, trees, and graphs, showcasing the versatility and power of C. These patterns are commonly used in optimizing algorithms, implementing data structures, or enhancing program efficiency. Mastering these patterns requires a deep understanding of C’s fundamentals and a creative approach to problem-solving within the language’s constraints.

Spiral Pattern

Have a look at the code given below for displaying a spiral pattern.

#include <stdio.h>
void printSpiral(int size)
{
    int row = 0, col = 0;
    int boundary = size - 1;
    int sizeLeft = size - 1;
    int flag = 1;
    char move = 'r';
    int matrix[size][size];
    for (int i = 1; i < size * size + 1; i++)
    {
        matrix[row][col] = i;
        switch (move)
        {
        case 'r':
            col += 1;
            break;
        case 'l':
            col -= 1;
            break;
        case 'u':
            row -= 1;
            break;
        case 'd':
            row += 1;
            break;
        }
        if (i == boundary)
        {
            boundary += sizeLeft;
            if (flag != 2)
            {
                flag = 2;
            }
            else
            {
                flag = 1;
                sizeLeft -= 1;
            }
            switch (move)
            {
            case 'r':
                move = 'd';
                break;
            case 'd':
                move = 'l';
                break;
            case 'l':
                move = 'u';
                break;
            case 'u':
                move = 'r';
                break;
            }
        }
    }
    for (row = 0; row < size; row++)
    {
        for (col = 0; col < size; col++)
        {
            int n = matrix[row][col];
            if (n < 10)
                printf("%d ", n);
            else
                printf("%d ", n);
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
}
int main()
{
    int size = 5;
    printSpiral(size);
    return 0;
}

Output:

Cross Pattern

Have a look at the code given below for displaying a cross pattern:

#include <stdio.h>  
int main(void) {  
  int x,y;  
  printf("Enter your number here: ");  
  scanf("%d",&x);  
  y=2*x-1;  
  for(int i=1;i<=y;i++)  
  {  
    for(int j=1;j<=y;j++)  
    {  
       if(i==j || j==(y-i+1))  
       {  
         printf("*");  
       }  
       else  
       {  
         printf(" ");  
       }  
    }  
    printf("\n");  
  }  
  return 0;  
}  

Output:

Arrow Pattern

Have a look at the code given below for displaying an arrow pattern:

#include <stdio.h>  
int main(void) 
{  
  int x;  
  printf("Enter the number: ");  
  scanf("%d",&x);  
  //printing the upper part of the pattern..  
 for(int i=1;i<=x;i++)  
 {  
   for(int j=1;j<=x-i;j++)  
   {  
       printf(" ");  
   }  
   for(int k=0;k<=x-i;k++)  
   {  
     printf("*");  
   }  
   printf("\n");  
 }  
for(int i=1;i<x;i++)  
{  
  for(int j=1;j<i+1;j++)  
  {  
    printf(" ");  
  }  
  for(int k=1;k<=i+1;k++)  
  {  
    printf("*");  
  }  
  printf("\n");  
}  
  return 0;  
}  

Output:

Hourglass Pattern

Have a look at the code given below for displaying an hourglass pattern:

#include <stdio.h> 
int main() 

    int rows = 5; 
    // first outer 
    for (int i = 0; i < 2 * rows - 1; i++) { 
        int temp; 
        if (i < rows) { 
            temp = 2 * i + 1; 
        } 
        else { 
            temp = 2 * (2 * rows - i) - 3; 
        } 
        // loop to print leading spaces 
        for (int j = 0; j < temp; j++) { 
            printf(" "); 
        } 
        // loop to print star * 
        for (int k = 0; k < 2 * rows - temp; k++) { 
            printf("* "); 
        } 
        printf("\n"); 
    } 
    return 0; 
}

Output:

Zig Zag Pattern

Have a look at the code given below for displaying a zig-zag pattern:

#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
    int charactersInLine, zigzagLines;
    printf("Number of characters in a line: ");
    scanf("%d", &charactersInLine);
    printf("Enter the number of zigzag lines: ");
    scanf("%d", &zigzagLines);
    for (int i = 1; i <= zigzagLines; i++) {
        for (int r = 1; r <= charactersInLine; r++) {
            for (int c = 1; c <= charactersInLine; c++) {
                if (r == c) {
                    printf("%d ", r);
                } else {
                    printf("  ");
                }
            }
            printf("\n");
        }
        for (int r = 1; r <= charactersInLine; r++) {
            for (int c = 1; c <= charactersInLine; c++) {
                if (c <= (charactersInLine + 1 - r)) {
                    if (c == (charactersInLine + 1 - r)) {
                        printf("%d ", r);
                    } else {
                        printf("  ");
                    }
                }
            }
            printf("\n");
        }
    }
    return 0;

Output:

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