When it comes to Electric Vehicles (EVs), the options go well beyond those powered only by batteries.
Car purchasers can now choose from a variety of choices, including those that use fuel cells or combine a gas engine in hybrid and plug-in hybrids.
In this blog, we’ll discuss four varieties of traditional electric vehicles: the standard EV, also known as a Battery-Powered Electric Vehicle (BEV); the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); the Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), and the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle(FCEV)
Let’s first understand;
What is Electric Vehicle?
An electric vehicle (EV) runs on an electric motor rather than an internal-combustion engine that creates power by burning a mixture of gasoline and gases.
As a result, such a vehicle is considered a potential replacement for current-generation automobiles to solve issues such as growing pollution, global warming, decreasing natural resources, and so on.
Though the notion of electric cars has been around for a long time, it has garnered a lot of attention in the last decade due to the growing carbon footprint and other environmental consequences of fuel-powered vehicles.
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How does an Electric Vehicle work?
These points explain the working of Electric Vehicles in a Short Note:
When the car’s pedal is pressed, the following occurs;
- The controller collects and manages electricity from batteries and inverters.
- When the controller is activated, the inverter transmits a certain quantity of electrical energy to the motor (according to the depth pressure on the pedal)
- Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy by an electric motor (rotation)
- The rotation of the motor rotor turns the gearbox, causing the wheels to revolve and the automobile to move.
Types of Electric Vehicles
There are four types of Electric Vehicles:
- Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
- Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV)
- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
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What is a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)?
A Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), sometimes known as an All-Electric Vehicle (AEV), is a vehicle that is driven by a battery and an electric drive train. These EVs do not have an IC Engine.
Electricity is stored in a huge battery pack, which is charged by connecting to the power grid. In turn, the battery pack powers one or more electric motors that power the electric vehicle.
Architecture of BEV
Main Components of BEV:
- Control Module
- Drive train
- Electric motor
Working Principle of Battery Electric Vehicles:
- For the electric motor, power is transformed from the Direct Current (DC) battery to alternating current (AC).
- The accelerator pedal sends a signal to the controller, which modifies the frequency of the AC flowing from the inverter to the motor to regulate the vehicle’s speed.
- The motor connects to and rotates the wheels through a gear.
- When the brakes are applied or the electric vehicle is decelerating, the motor transforms into an alternator and generates electricity, which is then returned to the battery.
Examples of Battery Electric Vehicles
These are some examples of BEV:
- Tesla Model 3
- Tesla X
- Toyota Rav4
- BMW i3
- Karma Revera
- Kia Soul
What is a Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV)?
This type of hybrid vehicle is also known as a normal hybrid or a parallel hybrid.
- The HEVs are operated by both an IC Engine and an electric motor.
- In these sorts of electric vehicles, the internal combustion engine is powered by fuel (gasoline and other forms of fuel), while the motor is powered by batteries.
- The gasoline engine and electric motor rotate the gearbox, which drives the wheels, at the same time.
Architecture of HEV
Main Components of HEV:
- Battery pack with controller & inverter
- Control module
- Electric motor
- Fuel tank
Working Principle of Hybrid Electric Vehicles:
- similar to a standard automobile that has a fuel tank that delivers gas to the engine.
- It also contains a battery pack that powers an electric motor.
- Both the engine and the electric motor may turn the gearbox simultaneously.
Examples of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
- Toyota Prius Hybrid
- Toyota Camry Hybrid
- Honda Civic Hybrid
What is a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)?
A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle that has both an ICE and a motor, often known as a series hybrid.
This sort of electric automobile comes with a variety of fuel options. This type of electric vehicle is propelled by a conventional fuel (such as gasoline) or an alternative fuel (such as biodiesel), as well as a rechargeable battery pack.
The battery can be charged by connecting it to an electrical outlet or an electric car charging station (EVCS).
PHEVs normally have at least two modes of operation:
- Allele citric Mode, in which the motor and battery supply all of the energy for the vehicle;
- Hybrid Mode, in which both electricity and fuel are used.
Some PHEVs can go for more than 70 miles solely on electricity.
Architecture of PHEV
Main Components of PHEV
- Battery Charger (if onboard model)
- Control module
- Electric motor
- Fuel tank
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Working Principle of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
- PHEVs normally start in all-electric mode and run on energy until their battery pack runs out of juice.
- When certain models reach highway cruising speeds of 60 or 70 miles per hour, they switch to hybrid mode.
- When the battery runs out, the engine kicks in and the car works as a standard, non-plug-in hybrid.
- PHEV batteries can be charged by an internal combustion engine or regenerative braking, in addition to connecting to an external electric power source.
- During braking, the electric motor functions as a generator, transferring energy to the battery. Because the electric motor supports the engine’s power, smaller engines can be used, enhancing fuel efficiency without sacrificing performance.
Examples of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
- Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid
- BMW 330e
- Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid
- Mercedes GLE550e
- Hyundai Sonata
- BMW X5 xdrive40e
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What is a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle?
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), also known as fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) or Zero Emission Vehicles, are electric vehicles that use “Fuel Cell Technology” to create the electricity needed to power the vehicle.
The chemical energy of the gasoline is turned directly into electric energy in this sort of vehicle.
Architecture of FCEV
Main Components of FCEV
- Battery with converter and controller
- Hydrogen storage tank
- Electric motor
- Fuel-cell stack
Working Principle of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
- The operation of a ‘fuel cell’ electric car differs from that of a ‘plug-in’ electric vehicle.
- This sort of electric car exists because the FCEV creates the electricity needed to power the vehicle.
Examples of Fuel cell Electric Vehicles
- Hyundai Tucson FCEV
- Honda Clarity Fuel Cell
- Riversimple Rasa
- Toyota Mirai
- Hyundai Nexo
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Future Scope of Electric Vehicles (EV)
Electric cars have great future potential. The charging station is the logical starting point for these cars. However, this is merely the first stage in a potentially long trip that will include charging banks and other industrial sites, as well as homes and cities.
As a result, the future potential of electric cars is enormous.
Electric vehicle technology has been at labs such as NASA since the 1970s. In a few years, current technology will undoubtedly be significantly more sophisticated.
Some predict that electric vehicles will soon be able to fuel themselves by gathering energy from their surroundings. Such cars will require less maintenance and may potentially be powered by renewable energy sources such as wind.
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From the first electric vehicle in 1837 to the present, we have witnessed significant developments, mainly in terms of technology, but also in people’s attitudes on the environmental impacts of cars and other mobility solutions.
Although the electric vehicle sector is now a profitable target for Indian corporations and start-ups, numerous challenges must be overcome before EVs are ready for broad adoption.
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