Hadoop and MapReduce User Handbook
Hadoop is one of the trending technologies which is used by a wide variety of organizations for research and production. This helps the user leverage several servers that offer computation and storage.
Now, let us understand what is MapReduce is and why it is important.
MapReduce is something that comes under Hadoop. It is a programming model which is used to process large data sets by performing map and reduce operations. Every industry dealing with Hadoop uses MapReduce as it can differentiate big issues into small chunks, thereby making it relatively easy to process data.
This cheat sheet is a handy reference for beginners or the ones willing to work on it, this covers all the basic concepts and HDFS commands which you must know to work with Big Data using Hadoop and MapReduce.
You can also download the printable PDF of this Hadoop and MapReduce cheat sheet.
What is Hadoop MapReduce?
While Hadoop is a framework basically designed to handle a large volume of data both structured and unstructured, Hadoop Distributed File System is a framework designed to manage huge volumes of data in a simple and pragmatic way. It contains numerous servers and each store a part of the file system.
In order to secure Hadoop, configure Hadoop with the following aspects:
- Define users
- Enable Kerberos in Hadoop
- Set-up Knox gateway to control access and authentication to the HDFS cluster
- Define groups
- Define HDFS permissions
- Define HDFS ACL’s
- Enable process execution audit trail
- Data protection:
- Enable wire encryption with Hadoop
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Hadoop HDFS commands:
|List File Commands
|hdfs dfs –ls /
||Lists all the files and directories given for the hdfs destination path
|hdfs dfs –ls –d /hadoop
||This command lists all the details of the hadoop files
|hdfs dfs –ls –R /hadoop
||Recursively lists all the files in the hadoop directory and al sub directories in Hadoop directory
|hdfs dfs –ls hadoop/ dat*
||This command lists all the files in the Hadoop directory starting with ‘dat’
|HDFS Basic Commands
|hdfs dfs -put logs.csv /data/
||This command is used to upload the files from local file system to HDFS
|hdfs dfs -cat /data/logs.csv
||This command is used to read the content from the file
|hdfs dfs -chmod 744 /data/logs.csv
||This command is used to change the permission of the files
|hdfs dfs -chmod –R 744 /data/logs.csv
||This command is used to change the permission of the files recursively
|hdfs dfs -setrep -w 5 /data/logs.csv
||This command is used to set the replication factor to 5
|hdfs dfs -du -h /data/logs.csv
||This command is used to check the size of the file
|hdfs dfs -mv logs.csv logs/
||This command is used to move the files to a newly created subdirectory
|hdfs dfs -rm -r logs
||This command is used to remove the directories from Hdfs
||This command is used to stop the cluster
||This command is used to start the cluster
||This command is used to check the version of Hadoop
||This command is used to check the health of the files
|Hdfs dfsadmin –safemode leave
||This command is used to turn off the safemode of namenode
|Hdfs namenode -format
||This command is used to format the NameNode
|hadoop [–config confdir]archive -archiveName NAME -p
||This command is used to create a Hadoop archieve
|hadoop fs [generic options] -touchz <path> …
||This is used to create an empty files in a hdfs directory
|hdfs dfs [generic options] -getmerge [-nl] <src> <localdst>
||This is used to concatenate all files in a directory into one file
|hdfs dfs -chown -R admin:hadoop /new-dir
||This is used to change the owner of the group
YARN Basic Commands
||This command shows the yarn help
|yarn [–config confdir]
||This command is used to define configuration file
|yarn [–loglevel loglevel]
||This can be used to define the log level, which can be fatal, error, warn, info, debug or trace
||This is used to show the Hadoop classpath
||This is used to show and kill the hadoop applications
||This shows the application attempt
||This command shows the container information
||This shows the node information
||This shows the queue information
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MapReduce: MapReduce is a framework for processing parallelizable problems across huge datasets using several systems referred as clusters. Basically, it is a processing technique and program model for distributed computing based on Java.
Mahout: Apache Mahout is an open source algebraic framework used for data mining which works along with the distributed environments with simple programming languages.
PayLoad: The applications implement Map and Reduce functions and form the core of the job.
MRUnit: Unit test framework for MapReduce.
Mapper: Mapper maps the input key/value pairs to the set of intermediate key/value pairs.
NameNode: Node that manages the HDFS is known as NameNode.
DataNode: Node where the data is presented before processing takes place.
MasterNode: Node where the jobtrackers runs and accept the job request from the clients.
SlaveNode: Node where the Map and Reduce program runs.
JobTracker: Schedules jobs and tracks the assigned jobs to the task tracker.
TaskTracker: Tracks the task and updates the status to the job tracker.
Job: A program which is an execution of a Mapper and Reducer across a dataset.
Task: An execution of Mapper and Reducer on a piece of data.
Task Attempt: An instance of an attempt to execute a task on a SlaveNode.
Commands used to interact with MapReduce:
|hadoop job -submit <job-file>
||This command is used to submit the Jobs created
|hadoop job -status <job-id>
||This command shows the map and reduce completion status and all job counters
|hadoop job -counter <job-id> <group-name> <countername>
||This prints the counter value
|hadoop job -kill <job-id>
||This command kills the job
|hadoop job -events <job-id> <fromevent-#> <#-of-events>
||This shows the event details received by the job tracker for the given range
|hadoop job -history [all] <jobOutputDir>
||This is used to print the job details, killed and failed tip details
|hadoop job -list[all]
||This command is used to display all the jobs
|hadoop job -kill-task <task-id>
||This command is used to kill the tasks
|hadoop job -fail-task <task-id>
||This command is used to fail the task
|hadoop job -set-priority <job-id> <priority>
||Changes and sets the priority of the job
|HADOOP_HOME/bin/hadoop job -kill <JOB-ID>
||This command kills the job created
|HADOOP_HOME/bin/hadoop job -history <DIR-NAME>
||This is used to show the history of the jobs
Important commands used in MapReduce:
Usage: mapred [Generic commands] <parameters>
||Shows Inputs the location for mapper
||Shows output location for the mapper
|-mapper executable or script or JavaClassName
||Used for Mapper executable
|-reducer executable or script or JavaClassName
||Used for reducer executable
||Makes the mapper, reducer, combiner executable available locally on the computing nodes
||This is used to specify number of reducers
||Script to call when the map task fails
||Script to call when the reduce task fails
Download a Printable PDF of this Cheat Sheet (Click here)
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