SAS Tutorial for Beginners
What is SAS?
SAS (Statistical Analysis System) is a software system used for data inspection and report writing. Statistical Analysis System is a group of programs that works collectively in order to improve and to hold data values, reform data, evaluate complex and single exponential analyses and generate reports.
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Some of the features that make it a leader in the field of business analytics are as follows:
- The editing key sequences used in Windows are applicable in SAS
- Able to read data in multiple formats ASCII, delimited data, hierarchical data and excel data
- Performs critical functions such as mathematics, data and time processing, character processing, etc.
Equipped with a rich set of datasets, variables, operators, loops, functions, input methods, etc., SAS allows the users to save the files in following formats making the system easy, flexible and user-friendly:
Extensions in which SAS saves the files:
|*.sas||SAS code file to be coded by the SAS editor|
|*.log||SAS log file containing errors, data set details, etc.|
|*.mht/*.html||SAS result file|
|*.sas7bdat||SAS data file includes datasets|
Preparing Data for SAS:
In order to use the Statistical Analysis System, Data should be in an Excel table format or SAS format. It is necessary to understand how the data should be organized in tables so that it can be able to run on SAS.
There are three windows appear when Statistical Analysis System is opened. The left window is called the Results/ Explorer window. The leading window contains the Log window, the Editor window, and the Output window. To toggle among the windows, the tabs along the bottom are used.
The Explorer/Results Window:
To browse SAS libraries, program files and the outcome of exponential methods, Results/ Explorer Window are used which is on the left side of the screen. The Results/Explorer Window is used to discover SAS data sets and other SAS-associated records. Data sets that have been imported into SAS will be found under Libraries in Sasuser or Work. Sasuser stored the data until it is explicitly deleted by the user, while Work automatically cleared the data when the program is closed. Both Results Window and the Output Window is used to look at the final outcome of exponential methods.
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The Editor Window:
To generate, modify, and execute Statistical Analysis System programs, Program Editor Window is used. Here, any data manipulation and analytical tasks can be performed through the writing of code that instructs SAS how to process the data. To save the code created by SAS Analyst for editing, to generate a record of observation/analysis, or to re-run an analysis in the future the Program Editor can be used. The Output window is used to visualize the output from the program.
The Output Window:
To view the results originated from the submitted program, the Output window is used. Statistics in Output window can be viewed for getting the results, printed, or saved for future purpose. The Output generates in the Output window can be saved as a text file and then edited, if required in any supporting tool or application like Microsoft Word.
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The Log Window:
To check a program for errors, the Log window is used. The Log window also accommodates essential summary details about the errors that occurred during the program. In the Log window, the blue color is used to highlight comments and red color is used to highlight error messages.
Getting Data into SAS:
To import data into SAS, an Excel file can be used in a predefined format in Data sets. To convert the data into the form required by SAS, Open the Calculating machine data from the web page in Excel and save it. Each row will be considered as a single observation, and the columns will contain statistics on the machine (A/B), the replicate (1 to 10), and the noticed time for the calculation. To import data into SAS, Simply select File -> Import Data and follow the directions.
Table of Contents
Introduction to SAS
What is SAS?: SAS (Statistical Analysis System) is integrated system that enables us to perform statistical analysis by altering, managing and retrieving data from a variety of sources to develop a software solution. Importance of SAS: It develop solution for enterprise wide business by performing: Data Entry, Retrieval and Management Report Creation and Graphics Statistical and Mathematical Analysis Forecasting, Read More
SAS GUI Functionality
GUI for SAS: SAS Studio provide following Windows for better Programming purpose: Code /Editor Window: Used to write and Edit codes. Enhanced Editor in SAS EG is syntax sensitive and allow you to collapse and expand the various steps in the program Server Files and Folders: Show the Physical Storage Locations of Data Log Window: Information about the execution of Read More
SAS File Concept
SAS Libraries: SAS files are stored in Libraries so SAS Library is a collection of SAS Files. SAS files are called SAS datasets. have different implementation depending on our operating system. For example in Windows and UNIX environment, a library is typically a group of SAS files in same folder or directory. Two types of libraries: Temporary Library Permanent Read More
SAS Data Sets
About SAS dataset: SAS data set is a SAS file, which holds data. Data should be in the form of a SAS data set to get processed. A SAS data set contains data value organized as a table of observations and variables to process by SAS. Rows are defined as Observations and Columns are defines as Variables in SAS data Read More
What are SAS Variables?: In addition to general information about the dataset, the descriptor portion contains information about the attributes of each variable in the data set. The attribute information includes the variables: Name, Type, Length, format, informat and label. Name: It identifies a variable that conforms to SAS naming rules. SAS naming Rule same as SAS data set. Read More