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9 Major Functions of Financial Management

Financial management is the heartbeat of all organizations, driving decisions that impact profitability, growth, and sustainability. The art of mastering financial management functions is akin to steering a ship through turbulent waters. Whether you're a seasoned financial professional seeking to refine your skills or a newcomer looking to grasp the fundamentals, this blog is your go-to resource.

Welcome to a journey of financial know-how and smart decision-making! In today’s world, mastering financial management is crucial. This blog is for entrepreneurs, CFOs, and anyone looking to boost their financial knowledge. Join us as we look into budgeting, risk management, capital allocation, and more.

Table of Contents

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What is Financial Management?

Financial management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the financial resources of an individual or organization. It means deciding how to get, distribute, and use money to reach financial goals. Financial management is important for both individuals and organizations. For individuals, it can help to achieve financial security and independence. For organizations, it can ensure profitability, growth, and long-term success.

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Top Functions of Financial Management

Compiling a list of the major key functions of financial management can provide you with a more comprehensive understanding of the roles and responsibilities of a financial manager. If you are interested in the subject, you can pursue financial management courses and obtain certifications. Some notable functions are mentioned below:

1. Financial Strategy and Anticipation

Financial management is the practice of acquiring funds and efficiently overseeing their allocation within a business. While the term “Financial Strategy and Anticipation” this approach consists of four main parts that work together.

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Directing
  • Controlling

2. Effective Cash Handling

A financial manager’s key task is to determine the money a company requires for its goals. In this role, you must assess the company’s size, operations, and profit potential. Understanding the company’s rules and policies is crucial. Moreover, a strong grasp of financial management principles safeguards the organization from financial issues and losses.

3. Determining the Capital Structure

Once you’ve figured out how much money you need, the next financial management step is dividing it up wisely. This involves digging into long-term and short-term financial options through research and analysis. It all boils down to what the company has and if they need to get more elsewhere. The capital structure hinges on smartly matching the financial pieces to meet the capital needs.

4. Sources of Funding

In the world of financial management, the next big move is securing the required funds, and it’s quite a journey. Companies have multiple choices, like investors, bank loans, or going public when they need money. But it’s not a random choice; it’s a thorough evaluation of each option’s advantages and disadvantages. Companies assess these funding sources and prioritize them to make smart financial choices.

5. Projecting Cash Flow

Including future expenses is an important part of predicting cash flow. This predictive analysis of cash flow stands as an indispensable instrument for your company, serving as an illuminating gauge to ascertain whether adequate financial resources will be at your disposal to effectively operate and potentially expand the enterprise. Additionally, this tool can reveal important information when the company spends more than it earns, helping with fixing the problem quickly.

The company’s fiscal trajectory is shaped by the sources of funding in the financial landscape. These sources can be internal or external.

6. Allocation of Profits

The financial manager has many roles, one important role is assessing net revenues. This important assessment appears in two different areas of a company’s financial management system. The financial manager uses their expertise to decide the dividend rate and bonuses.

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7. Strategic Capital Investment

Financial management encompasses several functions, such as wisely allocating funds to successful projects. Financial managers must grasp financial skills, predict returns and craft investment plans that maximize profits while minimizing risks.

These functions are crucial for making smart investment decisions, albeit they can be intricate. The primary aim is safeguarding investments and ensuring the organization’s financial stability.

8. Financial Command

The finance manager is responsible for creating strategies to control and use funds effectively. In this broad goal, the financial manager uses a variety of strategies as important tools.

One important strategy is ratio analysis, which examines financial metrics to understand a company’s fiscal health. In addition, financial forecasting is important for predicting and preparing for future financial changes. How prices are set is important because it affects how much money the company makes. These strategies, along with others, make up the many aspects of financial management. They help the organization’s financial well-being and prosperity.

9. Setting and Managing Prices

Large companies use elaborate systems to track and record costs for financial management. These intricate systems emphasize the significance of data for various tasks, and the data is displayed on computer screens or monitors.

Advanced systems for financial management offer valuable insights by analyzing spending patterns at each manufacturing stage. They also reveal the critical profit levels required for smooth and successful operations. These well-structured systems empower businesses to make informed decisions, enhancing financial transparency and efficiency.

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Why is Financial Management Important?

Financial management holds paramount importance for the following reasons:

  1. Decision-Making: Good financial management helps business leaders make informed decisions using current financial reports. This capability is instrumental in facilitating crucial financial and business determinations.
  2. Strategic Planning: Managing finances helps companies plan and develop strategies to reach their goals, both short-term and long-term. Managers can use it to check how well the company is doing now and predict future challenges and financial outcomes.
  3. Oversight and Control: Managers use financial management to control a company’s finances and make sure departments follow budgets and goals.

Types of Financial Management

Here is a list of different types of financial management to help you learn more:

1. Capital structure

Capital structure means how a company gets money to run and grow. It’s like deciding if you’ll borrow money or use your own when you need funds. This choice is super important for a company’s financial health. It decides how much financial risk a company can handle and how much it has to pay to the people who lent it money or invested in it. There are a few important parts of capital structure, such as

  1. Debt: Money borrowed from others, like banks
  2. Equity: Money from people who buy a company share
  3. Financial Risk: How safe or risky the company’s financial situation is
  4. Interest: The cost of borrowing money
  5. Dividends: Money paid to the people who own shares in the company

2. Capital Budgeting

Capital budgeting is like making big money decisions for a company. The main aim is to pick the projects that will make the company the most money while also thinking about the risks and expenses involved. Capital budgeting typically includes:

  1. Identifying Investments: The first step is finding investments that fit the company’s goals. This might mean doing market research, checking industry trends, and looking at proposals from within the company.
  2. Evaluating Investments: After finding potential investments, they’re checked for how much money they could make and how risky they are. This involves studying the expected cash flows and returns, as well as considering any possible risks.
  3. Choosing the Best: Once all the evaluations are done, the company picks the investments that make the most sense. They consider things like how much money they can make, how risky it is, and how much it will cost, all while keeping their overall financial goals in mind.
  4. Putting Money In and Keeping an Eye: When they’ve decided, they put their money into these investments and watch them closely. This includes giving them the resources they need, coordinating with other parts of the company, and making sure they’re doing well over time.

3. Working Capital Management

Working capital management means making sure a company always has enough money on hand to keep running and cover unexpected costs. There are several important parts of working capital management, including

  1. Cash Flow Management: This is about handling the money going in and out of a company. It includes timing payments, negotiating good payment terms with suppliers, and reducing the time and money spent on unproductive assets and testing.
  2. Accounts Receivable Management: This deals with the money that customers owe a company. It’s important to manage this well to get payments on time. This can involve setting credit limits, offering early payment discounts, and keeping an eye on customer payments.
  3. Inventory Management: This is about managing the stuff a company has, like raw materials and finished goods. It’s crucial to have the right amount of inventory to meet customer demand. This might mean setting inventory levels, using inventory systems, and regularly checking to make sure the inventory is at the right levels.

Learn more with our blog on Principles of Financial Management.

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Conclusion

Financial management’s significance cannot be overstated. Businesses are built on it. It guides them through tough times. It leads to growth and success. We’ve looked at different parts of financial management, like capital structure, capital budgeting, and working capital management. We learned how each one plays a unique role in the financial landscape. As we finish this journey, with the knowledge we have gained, we can use financial management to lead our businesses toward success and adapt to a changing world.

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