How an Electric Vehicle Works
Updated on 21st Sep, 22 18 Views

What is an Electric Vehicle?

An electric vehicle is abbreviated as an EV. EVs are cars that are either partially or entirely powered by electricity.

Electric cars have minimal operating expenses since they have fewer moving parts to repair and are also highly beneficial ecologically because they consume little or no fossil fuels (petrol or diesel).

While some EVs employed lead acid or nickel metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries are currently regarded as the norm for modern battery electric cars since they have better durability and are exceptional at storing energy, with a self-discharge rate of just 5% per month.

If you want to understand How electric vehicles Works. You need to be familiar with the physical elements of an Electrical Vehicle, thinking about buying an Electric Vehicle, but wondering whether you’ll sink or swim?… This Electric Vehicle Tutorial Will help you clear your doubts.

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Table of Contents:

History of Electric Vehicle

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Electric Vehicle was first popularized as a term in the early 1800s, but the electric vehicle has been around much longer.

Here’s a pic of the first Electric Vehicle:

Electric Vehicle

His name: William Morrison

What! Morrison

Yup! In 1870 he was the first human to demonstrate an “Electric Vehicle”

William Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa, invented the first practical electric car in the United States. His automobile is hardly more than an electrified wagon, but it captivates people’s curiosity about electric vehicles.

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Now we’re gonna illustrate the Evolution of the Electric Vehicle

Evolution..!

It was in 1901: Many inventors were taking note of the electric car’s huge demand and working to enhance the technology. For example, Thomas Edison believed that electric cars were the superior means of transportation and tried to develop a better battery.

  • 1908 -1912: Electric vehicles became popular in the United States around the turn of the century,
  • 1968 – 1973: Over the following 50 years or more, cheap, abundant gasoline and ongoing advancements in the internal combustion engine reduced the necessity for alternative fuel vehicles. However, throughout the 1960s and 1970s, petrol costs climbed, boosting interest in electric cars.
  • 1973: Many large and small automakers began to investigate alternative fuel vehicle possibilities. For example, General Motors created a prototype for an urban electric automobile, which it displays at the First Symposium on Low Pollution Power Systems Development in 1973.
  • 1974 – 1983: Sebring-CitiCar vanguards is a successful electric vehicle at that moment. More than 2,000 CitiCars are manufactured by the firm, which is a wedge-shaped small automobiles with a range of 50-60 miles. Due to its popularity, Sebring-Vanguard became the sixth largest carmaker in the United States by 1975.

After 1983 Electric vehicles already reached their third century as a commercially viable product.

It has been remarkably successful, Come through many other technical innovations that have come and gone.

If are you fascinated by the term, “Electric Vehicle” and are interested to know more about it, then do check out Intellipaat’s Electric Vehicle Course!

Electric Vehicles: How do they Work?

You might be wondering what Principal Electric Vehicles Works

Well, here’s the answer

Electric vehicles operate on the principle of converting electric energy into mechanical energy, which is then utilized to generate kinetic energy and enable vehicle mobility

EVs use an electric motor rather than a traditional gasoline engine. Electric energy, therefore, replaces traditional fuel (petrol/diesel). Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy by the electric motor.

Let’s know what Components replace the traditional vehicle Components

In simple terms, an automobile that operates on traditional gasoline (petrol/diesel) has fundamental components such as an engine, gearbox, fuel tank, and so on. The engine in an electric vehicle has been replaced by an electric motor, and the gas tank has been replaced by a battery pack. The transmission stays the same, however, all-electric cars have a simplified gear system.

To understand how an electric car works, consider the following points:

  • When you charge the battery, it stores electrical energy. The stored energy is utilized to power the electric motor and other accessories/components.
  • The flow of electrical energy to the motor is managed by the controller.
  • The controller controls the flow of electricity based on the data received from the accelerator pedal.
  • The electric motor draws energy from the battery and transforms it into mechanical energy.
  • The transmission is in charge of delivering mechanical energy from the motor to the wheels.
  • The energy produced by braking or slowing the vehicle is returned to the battery pack.
  • The battery pack can be charged using the charging port. The onboard charger converts Alternating Current (AC) to Direct Current (DC).
  • You may charge the battery by attaching an external power source to the charging port on the car.
  • An EV additionally includes an auxiliary battery that powers the vehicle’s accessories and other equipment.
  • A DC-to-DC converter converts high-voltage current from the battery pack to low-voltage current to replenish the auxiliary battery.

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How does an electric car’s engine work?

As previously stated, an electric motor serves as an engine in electric cars. Car manufacturers often employ AC motors in e-cars, which implies the motor runs on Alternating Current (AC).

The following points describe how an electric motor works.

  • The Power Electronics Controller (PEC) regulates the flow of electrical energy to the motor when you push the accelerator pedal.
  • The amount of current required to power the motor changes based on the amount of pressure applied to the accelerator pedal.
  • When the motor is powered up, the rotors begin to spin and generate mechanical energy.
  • The mechanical energy generated by the motor begins to rotate the gears or transmission.
  • The mechanical energy is transferred to the wheels via the gearbox, which moves the vehicle forward.

How does charging work in Electric vehicles?

An electric car has a charging port as well as an inbuilt charger that converts AC electricity to DC. Depending on the model and battery capacity, an all-electric car charger may come with a variety of connections. However, the fundamental premise of charging an environmentally friendly vehicle stays the same.

Electric vehicles

The process of charging an electric vehicle is similar to that of charging a smartphone. Connect directly to the battery-powered vehicle to an external power source using the cable supplied by the automobile manufacturer.

An EV may be charged by connecting it to an external power source. It might be a domestic power outlet or a separate charging station. EV charging is further classified into three tiers based on the capability of the electrical energy flow.

Level 1 charging: It is just charging an EV using a standard 120-volt power outlet accessible in most homes. You may connect the charger to a power outlet and charge the battery overnight.

Level 2 charging:  it is the most popular form of the public charging station. You can even build a Level 2 charging station at home if the automobile manufacturer allows it. It requires a 240-volt power outlet. Charging time is lowered when compared to 120-volt charging.

Level 3 charging: Rapid chargers or DC fast chargers are used in this system. Fast-charging stations are typically installed in strategic areas by EV manufacturers, and you may be charged to use such charging stations. With fast chargers, charging speed is quick (usually slightly over an hour for a full charge) due to DC power.

However, to use Level 3 charging, your EV must be compatible with rapid charging.

Components of Electric Vehicle

You now have a basic understanding of how an electric car works. Let us now provide a brief overview of the major characteristics and components of an EV. Before we get to the highlights, let’s have a look at some of the most important components of a battery-powered vehicle.

  • Battery pack: It stores electrical energy that is used by the vehicle’s electric motor and other components.
Battery pack
  • Charging port: This is a port that allows you to connect the EV to an external power source to charge the battery pack.
  • Cooling system: An EV’s cooling system is analogous to a radiator in a traditional automobile. The cooling system assists in keeping the battery pack, electric motor, power controller, and other powertrain components at optimal operating temperatures.
  • DC-to-DC converter: This device transforms the high-voltage electrical current from the battery pack to a low-voltage current that may be used to replenish the auxiliary battery. The converter is also utilized to power various car accessories/components.
  • Electric Motor: The electric motor is the core of the electric powertrain, converting electrical energy from the battery pack to mechanical energy. The gearbox, which drives the wheels, is linked to the motor.
  • Auxiliary battery: An EV, like a petrol or diesel engine-powered automobile, has a 12-volt battery to power the lights, horn, accessories, and other vehicle components. The battery is powered by the energy stored in the main battery pack.
  • Transmission: Usually known as a gearbox, it distributes mechanical energy from the motor to the wheels. The gearbox in EVs is automated, and the gear configuration is simple in comparison to traditional automobiles.
  • Power Electronics Controller (PEC): This is a controller that controls the flow of electrical energy from the battery pack. In turn, it regulates the power and torque output of the electric motor.

Features of the Electric Vehicles

  • Zero-emission: Unlike conventional vehicles, all-electric vehicles emit no emissions due to the use of electrical energy. Because electric cars do not release hazardous gases, they contribute to the reduction of fast-growing air pollution caused by automotive emissions.
  • Low maintenance costs: The initial expenditure required to acquire an EV is more than that required to own a conventional automobile. However, because electric vehicles have fewer mechanical parts, their maintenance costs are significantly lower in the long term.

Furthermore, the operating costs of an electric automobile are minimal since electrical energy is less expensive than traditional petrol.

  • Easy to drive: Battery-powered vehicles are simple to operate since they lack a clutch and need manual gear changing. All you have to do is press the gas pedal and go. With minimal noise, it is easier to concentrate on the road, which is not the case with gasoline/diesel vehicles.

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Conclusion

The advancements made in the electric car sector in recent years are increasing, but also critical because of rising global greenhouse gas emissions. As illustrated in the economic, social, and environmental analyses parts of this website, the benefits of electric cars greatly outweigh the costs.

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