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The Cyber Appellate Tribunal: Everything You Need to Know

The Cyber Appellate Tribunal: Everything You Need to Know
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Our brief introduction outlines the essential role of the cyber appellate tribunal and its pivotal function in ensuring a fair and judicious resolution of cyber-related cases. In this blog, we will go through from the establishment of the cyber appellate tribunal to its limitations.

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Introduction to Cyber Appellate Tribunal 

The Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) stands as a critical institution in the legal landscape. . Established under the Information Technology Act of 2000, the CAT serves as a specialized forum for settling cyber-related disputes, ensuring that citizens have access to fair and impartial proceedings. It defends the rights of individuals and businesses in the online world. The CAT operates independently and has the authority to summon and examine witnesses, require the production of relevant documents, and make decisions based on the principles of natural justice.

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Establishment of Cyber Appellate Tribunal

The establishment of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) was an important moment in India’s legal landscape. It was introduced under Section 48 of the Information Technology (Amendment) Act of 2006, which sought to address the unique challenges brought about by the digital age. This move was essential because, as the internet grew, so did the risks associated with it.

In section 48, there are the following sub-sections:

  1. The central government shall, by notification, establish one or more appellate tribunals to be known as the cyber appellate tribunal.
  2. The central government shall also specify, in the notification referred to in subsection (1), the matters and places in relation to which the cyber appellate tribunal may exercise jurisdiction.

According to sub-section 1, the central government has the power to create one or more cyber appellate tribunals (CATs), depending on the need. The central government also has the power to specify the matters and places in relation to which the CAT may exercise jurisdiction. However, according to Rule 13 of the Cyber Regulation Tribunal Rules, 2000, there will be only one cyber appellate tribunal (CAT), and its primary location for hearings is typically in New Delhi. 

It is important to note that Rule 13 is a subordinate law made under the authority granted by the Information Technology Act, of 2000. This means that the central government has the power to modify or cancel Rule 13 if necessary.

In the second sub-section, it is stated that the government will also mention the specific subjects and locations where the Cyber Appellate Tribunal can make decisions.

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Staff of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal

The central government appoints the members of the CAT by notification in the Official Gazette. The members of the CAT are appointed for a period of three years, but they are eligible for reappointment. These individuals work under the direction of the chairperson. The central government sets the salaries, allowances, and other service conditions. This ensures a well-organized and regulated work environment at the cyber appellate tribunal, promoting effective operations and fair treatment of the staff.

Composition of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal

The composition of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) is a key aspect that sets it apart from other legal bodies. It reflects a deep understanding of the complexity of cyber-related issues and the necessity for expertise in various domains.

The CAT is headed by a chairperson, who is typically a retired judge from the Supreme Court or a High Court.

In addition to the chairperson, the CAT includes expert members who possess knowledge in fields such as information technology, cybersecurity, and law. These experts act as the backbone of the tribunal, bringing technical insight and specialized legal expertise to the table.

Think of the CAT’s composition as a team of both seasoned players and fresh talent. The combination of legal wisdom and technical know-how ensures that the CAT is well-equipped to comprehend and address even the most intricate cyber-related cases. This diverse composition ensures that justice is served fairly in the digital world.

Qualifications for Appointment

A person can become a member of the cyber appellate tribunal (CAT) only if he has certain qualifications outlined in Section 48(3) of the Information Technology Act, 2000. These qualifications include:

  1. The person must be a citizen of India.
  2. The person should have served as a judge of a high court, held a position equivalent to that of secretary to the government of India, or held a similar role in the central or state government for at least seven years.
  3. The person must possess experience in information technology law or practice.

The chairperson of the cyber appellate tribunal holds the position for five years from the appointment date or until reaching the age of 65, whichever happens first. However, the other members are appointed only for 3 years.

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Termination or Resignation

The central government has the authority to end the service of a member or chairperson of the CAT, and this authority is discretionary. This means the government is not obligated to provide specific reasons for ending the appointment. However, it is expected that if the government decides to terminate the appointment, it should do so fairly and reasonably.

There are certain reasons for removal from the position of a member or chairperson of the cyber appellate tribunal (CAT), as explained in Section 48(5) of the Information Technology Act, 2000. These reasons include:

  1. Misconduct or misbehavior: This relates to any inappropriate actions or behavior, such as corruption, dishonesty, or misuse of power, not suitable for a CAT member or chairperson.
  2. Incompetence or inefficiency: This refers to not fulfilling the duties of a CAT member or chairperson adequately.
  3. Negligence: This involves not exercising reasonable care in performing the duties of a CAT member or chairperson.
  4. Unsoundness of mind: This covers any mental illness or disability that makes it difficult for CAT members or chairperson to perform their duties effectively.
  5. Physical infirmity: This includes any physical disability that hampers a CAT member or chairperson from effectively carrying out their duties.

This power is important to ensure that the CAT is made up of members suitable for their roles. It also acts as a prevention against any misconduct or misbehavior by members and chairpersons of the CAT.

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Procedures and Powers of Cyber Appellate Tribunal

The powers of the cyber appellate tribunal are outlined under Section 58 of the Information Technology Act, 2000. These powers enable the cyber appellate tribunal (CAT) to conduct thorough and unbiased investigations, collect important evidence, and arrive at well-informed decisions in disputes related to cyber matters. There are three sub-clauses that describe these powers.

  1. According to clause (1) the cyber appellate tribunal (CAT) is not obligated to follow the procedural rules of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (CPC). However, it must uphold principles of natural justice and other regulations outlined in the Information Technology Act, 2000.
  2. In the clause (2), it is mentioned that the CAT possesses the same powers as a civil court under the CPC when handling a lawsuit. These powers encompass:
    • Summoning and questioning witnesses
    • Demanding document production
    • Receiving evidence through affidavits
    • Issuing commissions for witness examinations
    • Reviewing its own decisions
  3. Clause (3) Section 58, states that any proceedings before the CAT are regarded as judicial proceedings according to sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. Furthermore, for the application of Section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the CAT is recognized as a civil court.

Appeal under Cyber Appellate Tribunal

Section 57 of the Information Technology Act, 2000, grants the right to appeal to the cyber appellate tribunal (CAT) against decisions made by adjudicating officers under the Act. The CAT is a special body set up to handle disputes related to cyber issues.

Anyone who feels unfairly affected by an order from an adjudicating officer under the Information Technology Act, 2000, can make an appeal to the CAT. This includes individuals, companies, and organizations. The appeals can be made against orders covering various matters like cybercrime, online content regulation, data protection, intellectual property rights, and intermediary liability. These appeals can be based on the following reasons:

  1. The order is illegal or invalid.
  2. The order is founded on an incorrect interpretation of the law.
  3. The order relies on insufficient or inadequate evidence.
  4. The order does not follow the principles of natural justice.

The appeal must be done within 45 days from the receipt of the order. It appeal should be in the prescribed form and accompanied by a fee.

Limitations of the CAT

The limitation of the CAT is related to tribunal appeals. Section 61 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 states that regular courts cannot handle cases related to matters that the cyber appellate tribunal is authorized to decide. So, if you have an issue that the CAT can address, you cannot take it to a civil court. Instead, you must begin by filing an appeal with the CAT.

The CAT is a specialized tribunal with expertise in information technology law, essential for resolving issues in the digital world. Also, it is faster and more cost-effective than civil courts, which can be slow, expensive, and lack the necessary expertise for digital disputes.

This law ensures that digital disputes are resolved promptly, efficiently, and by experts in the field. Examples of such disputes include disagreements over domain name registrations, trademarks for online brands, removal of online content, privacy of online data, and misuse of online infrastructure.

If you have a dispute that the CAT can handle, always begin by filing an appeal with them. Avoid going to a regular civil court.


In conclusion, the Cyber Appellate Tribunal was established to counteract cybercrime and punish those involved. The government aimed to facilitate and support electronic transactions while also protecting against various cybercrimes. Due to the significant internet traffic and the large sums of money involved in online transactions, it was crucial to enhance cybersecurity. Even though the cyber world is different from the physical world, it has the potential to engage in crimes similar to those in the real world. 

To enhance the effectiveness of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal, it is important to increase awareness among the public and the government and make efforts to deploy staff. Improving technical capabilities is crucial to handling any situation that may arise. Ensuring the integrity, confidentiality, and authenticity of communication routes and processes is essential.

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