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What is Go Programming Language?

What is Go Programming Language?

Ultimately, with dedication, practice, and a willingness to learn, you can start learning Golang and explore its powerful features and capabilities. However, before that, there are some prerequisites for learning Golang. Starting from having a good grip on computer fundamentals to foundational knowledge in computer programming. Additionally, since Golang is accessed through the CLI, you should also know about the basics of CLI. 

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Introduction to Golang

Introduction to Golang

In the vast landscape of programming languages, Go, or Golang, has gained significant popularity since its introduction in 2009. Developed by Google engineers with a focus on simplicity, efficiency, and scalability, Go has become the go-to language for building robust and high-performance software applications. Listed below is some more information on the topic:

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  • Golang was created by a team at Google led by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
  • Go was designed to address the limitations of existing programming languages while providing a simple and efficient solution for building robust software applications.
  • With its clean syntax and extensive standard library, Go has emerged as a reliable option for various applications, from web development to system programming.
  • One of the key principles behind Go’s development was simplicity. The language was designed to be easy to read, write, and understand, making it accessible to experienced developers and field newcomers.
  • It utilizes a concurrent and garbage-collected runtime, enabling efficient execution of programs with concurrent processes and automatic memory management.
  • Go’s standard library is comprehensive and well-documented, offering a wide range of packages for tasks such as networking, file I/O, and cryptography.
  • Its growing popularity and adoption by major companies demonstrate its effectiveness in addressing modern software development challenges. 

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Hello World Program in Golang

Hello World Program in Golang

Let us commence our educational endeavor by delving into the initial program, known as the “Hello, World!” program in the Golang programming language. The straightforwardness of Go’s syntax renders it exceptionally easy to begin with.

//Hello World Program in Golang
package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
    fmt.Println("Hello, World!")

By running this code, you will see the familiar “Hello, World!” message printed on the console. This concise program showcases the fundamental structure of a Go program, including the package declaration, import statement, and main function.

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Installation Process of Golang

Installation Process of Golang

In order to begin coding in Go, it is imperative to install the Go compiler and configure your development environment. The process of installation is uncomplicated and may slightly differ depending on your operating system. Presented below is a concise summary of the installation procedure:

  • Step 1: Download Go
    Visit the official Go website and download the appropriate installer package suitable for your operating system.
  • Step 2: Install Go
    Run the installer package and follow the instructions provided by the installer. Ensure that you set the necessary environment variables to enable Go to function properly.
  • Step 3: Verify the Installation
    Once the installation process is finished, access the terminal or command prompt and enter the following command:
go version

Once the installation is complete, the version number of Go should be visible on your screen.

Various Golang Frameworks

Various Golang Frameworks

The Golang ecosystem offers a variety of frameworks and libraries that extend the capabilities of the language and facilitate rapid application development. Let’s explore some popular frameworks in the Go community:

  • Gin
    Gin is a web framework renowned for its simplicity and exceptional performance, offering essential routing, middleware, and rendering capabilities. Its lightweight nature and swift processing make it a highly favored choice for developing web applications and APIs using the Go programming language.
  • Beego
    Beego is a full-featured MVC (Model-View-Controller) framework that provides robust tools and components for building scalable and modular applications. It includes automatic routing, session management, ORM (Object-Relational Mapping), and more.
  • Buffalo
    Buffalo represents a comprehensive web development ecosystem for the efficient production of Go-based web applications. It offers a cohesive collection of tools, such as a web server, database migration support, asset pipeline management, and authentication capabilities. These integrated resources empower developers to expedite the creation of robust applications with abundant functionalities.
  • Echo
    Echo is an additional web framework with notable performance that prioritizes simplicity and minimalism. It provides strong routing capabilities, middleware support, and a wide range of features for constructing RESTful APIs and web applications.

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Applications of Golang

Applications of Golang

Golang’s versatility makes it suitable for a wide range of applications. Here are a few areas where Go shines:

  • System Programming
    Its low-level capabilities and efficient memory management make it well-suited for system programming tasks. It provides the tools and features for developing reliable and performant system-level software, from writing network daemons to building operating systems or system utilities.
  • Web Development
    The rapid execution speed, exceptional concurrency support, and strong networking capabilities of the Go programming language render it a highly suitable option for developing web applications and APIs. Its straightforwardness and effectiveness make it a compelling choice for constructing scalable and high-performing web services.
  • DevOps and Infrastructure
    Go’s static binary compilation and cross-platform support make it an excellent choice for building DevOps tools, command-line utilities, and infrastructure automation. Its simplicity and performance make it a favorite among developers working in cloud-native environments and containerization.
  • Big Data and Data Science
    With the rise of Big Data and data-intensive applications, Go has emerged as a language that can handle large-scale data processing efficiently. It offers libraries and frameworks for tasks like distributed computing, data streaming, and parallel processing. This makes it a viable choice for data-driven applications and data science projects.

Benefits of Golang

Benefits of Golang

Golang’s flexibility allows it to be open to a diverse array of applications. Let’s explore some domains where Go truly excels:

  • Simplicity and Readability
    • Its designers of Go focused on simplicity, aiming to create a language that is easy to learn and understand. 
    • The syntax of Go is concise yet expressive, promoting clean and readable code. 
    • This simplicity reduces the cognitive load on developers and makes it easier to maintain and collaborate on projects.
  • Efficiency and Performance
    • The runtime of the Go programming language incorporates concurrent programming capabilities, enabling developers to harness the complete capabilities of contemporary multi-core processors. 
    • These enhancements in performance render Go highly suitable for endeavors necessitating rapid execution and scalability.
  • Strong Typing and Safety
    • Go serves as an example of a statically typed language, meaning variable types are checked during compile time to ensure type safety. 
    • Go helps catch errors early in the development process and prevents runtime issues. 
    • Go’s strong typing system promotes more reliable and robust code.
  • Concurrency and Goroutines
    • Goroutines are lightweight threads that enable the concurrent execution of functions, while channels facilitate communication and synchronization between goroutines. 
    • This built-in concurrency model simplifies the development of highly concurrent and parallel programs, making it easier to harness the power of modern hardware architectures.
  • Extensive Standard Library
    • The Go programming language possesses an extensive standard library that encompasses various functionalities such as networking, file manipulation, encryption, and more. 
    • This diverse collection of tools and packages empowers developers to construct intricate applications without excessive reliance on external dependencies. 
    • Moreover, the meticulously documented standard library serves to enhance the efficiency, productivity, and reusability of code.

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Disadvantages of Golang

Disadvantages of Golang

Although Go offers numerous advantages, it is essential to consider its limitations as well. Here are some potential drawbacks of Go:

  • Lack of Generics
    One notable limitation of Go is the lack of generics. Generics allow for the writing of reusable and type-safe code for different data types. Although Go provides workarounds like interfaces and code generation, the lack of native generics can sometimes lead to more verbose code.
  • Immaturity of Some Libraries
    While the Go ecosystem is rapidly growing, niche or specialized libraries may still need to be more mature than those available in more established languages. However, Go’s core libraries and widely-used frameworks are generally robust and well-maintained.
  • Learning Curve for Experienced Developers
    Developers who are experienced in languages with different paradigms, such as object-oriented programming, may find the shift to Go’s more straightforward and procedural approach challenging initially. However, an open mindset and practice can overcome the learning curve.

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The simplicity, performance, and concurrency support of Go has garnered it a strong following in the programming community. This blog has attempted to explore various aspects of the Golang programming language, including its installation process, benefits, frameworks, applications, and advantages.

Furthermore, we considered its limitations and potential challenges. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, Go offers a powerful and efficient platform for building a wide range of applications. Embrace Go’s simplicity and elegance, and unlock its potential for your next software project.

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About the Author

Senior Consultant Analytics & Data Science

Presenting Sahil Mattoo, a Senior Consultant Analytics & Data Science at Eli Lilly and Company is an accomplished professional with 14 years of experience across data science, analytics, and technical leadership domains, demonstrates a remarkable ability to drive business insights. Sahil holds a Post Graduate Program in Business Analytics and Business Intelligence from Great Lakes Institute of Management.