What is Statistics in Economics and its importance?
Updated on 24th Nov, 23 9.1K Views

Statistics transform the numbers into insightful storytellers of market trends, revealing the narrative behind every economic phenomenon. In this blog, we will be looking at different aspects of economics, be it singular or plural sense. We will also look at their features, importance, and limitations.

Table of Contents

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What is Statistics in Economics?

Statistics is a field of research that focuses on collecting, arranging, studying, explaining, and displaying information. In economics, statistics play an important role as they help manage tasks like gathering, sharing, organizing, processing, and analyzing economic information. Statistics is the key to grasping and interpreting trends and patterns in the economy.

Statistics play an important role in economics. It helps in examining market structure and understanding various economic issues. After a better understanding of the economic problems, statistics also help in solving those issues by preparing appropriate economic policies. 

Every branch of economics, be it microeconomics or macroeconomics, takes the help of statistics to prove different economic theories and economic facts. One can also easily establish a mathematical relationship with the help of statistics. Moreover, they can also determine the effect and cause relationships between different data sets. 

We can define statistics in two senses:

  1. Plural Sense
  2. Singular Sense 

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Statistics in Plural Sense

When we talk about statistics in the plural sense, we’re referring to the systematic gathering of numerical information with a specific goal in mind within a particular field of study.

Key Characteristics of Statistics in Plural Sense:

  • Numerical Expression: Statistics exclusively deals with quantitative or numerical data. It doesn’t involve assigning units or scores to subjective qualities like beauty or kindness.
  • Aggregate of Facts: In statistics, data is a collection of facts that cannot be viewed in isolation. To make sense of it, comparisons are essential.
  • Relation to Each Other: Collected data in statistics is meant for comparison. For this to be meaningful, the data needs to be homogeneous to ensure valid comparisons.
  • Predetermined Purpose: Statistical studies always have a clear goal. The systematic collection and analysis of data are guided by this purpose, ensuring accuracy and relevance in the results.
  • Reasonable Accuracy: Unlike fields such as mathematics or accounting, statistics maintains a standard of reasonable accuracy, not requiring an extremely high degree of precision.
  • Multiplicity of Causes: The study of numerical facts or figures in statistics recognizes the influence of multiple factors. No single cause can explain the observed trends.
  • Systematic Collection: To guarantee accurate and complete results, statistics demand the systematic collection of data, emphasizing a structured approach to gathering information.

Statistics in Singular Sense

In its singular sense, statistics involves the gathering, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical information for research purposes.

Key Characteristics of Statistics in the Singular Sense:

  • Data Collection: Start by deciding how to gather information for your study, then collect the data accordingly.
  • Data Organization: Simplify the collected data for easy comparison by sorting it based on time and place.
  • Data Presentation: Display the organized data in an appealing way, utilizing graphs, charts, diagrams, and tables.
  • Data Analysis: After presentation, analyze the data for accurate results using methods like Measures of Dispersion, Measures of Central Tendency, Interpolation, etc.
  • Data Interpretation: Conclude your findings by using comparisons and making reliable forecasts based on the interpreted data. This step ensures that the collected information is not just numbers but contributes meaningfully to the overall understanding of the subject.

Importance of Statistics in Economics

To the Government:

Statistics are vital tools for the government, enabling them to collect, arrange, and make sense of vast amounts of information presented in numbers. This process is essential for effective economic management and successfully meeting welfare goals.

  • Statistical methods, such as index numbers, forecasting, and demand analysis, assist the government in formulating economic policies.
  • In democratic nations like India, political groups use statistics to gauge their popularity among the masses.

In Economics:

Statistics contribute to the formulation of economic laws, including the Law of Demand, Law of Supply, Elasticity of Demand, and Elasticity of Supply, using inductive generalization.

  • Economic problems like unemployment and poverty are better understood and addressed through statistical techniques.
  • The study of different market structures, such as perfect competition and monopoly, is facilitated by statistics, which compare the costs, profits, and prices of firms.
  • Economists can estimate mathematical relationships between various economic variables.
  • Statistics help analyze the behavior of economic concepts, such as the laws of supply and demand, providing insights into consumer behavior.

In Business:

Statistics offer guidelines and tools for businesses to assess feasibility, location, input availability, taxes, output size, turnover, and market size before establishment.

  • Businesses can estimate demand for their products or services using statistical methods like trend analysis.
  • In the production planning process, statistics ensure a balance between supply and demand.
  • Different statistical techniques aid in analyzing purchasing power, consumer preferences, pricing, and population, helping businesses understand the potential of their target market.

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Limitations of Statistics

  • Statistics overlooks the qualitative side: It doesn’t consider aspects like kindness, honesty, care, health, and intelligence unless they are converted into measurable terms for study.
  • It disregards individual details: While statistics deals with the overall facts, it doesn’t delve into specifics. For instance, it looks at the collective marks of a class rather than individual student scores.
  • Uniform and homogeneous data are essential: For an economist, conducting a statistical study becomes challenging if the gathered data lacks consistency.
  • Potential for misuse: When statistics is not wielded by a trained and unbiased expert, there’s a risk of misinterpretation and inaccurate results. A biased individual might manipulate data to suit their agenda.
  • Results are only valid on average: In statistics, averages represent the overall picture. For instance, if a class averages 60 marks, it doesn’t mean every student got 60; some may have scored 30 or 40. Individual differences exist beyond the average.


In conclusion, we can say that statistics in economics acts as a powerful storyteller, displaying the secrets of markets and economic complexities through numerical insights. It serves as the backbone for informed decision-making in government, economics, and businesses. 

By organizing and analyzing data, statistics help formulate economic laws, tackle societal issues, and guide businesses in strategic planning. However, it’s crucial to acknowledge its limitations, such as overlooking qualitative aspects and the potential for misuse. In the end, while statistics paints a broad picture, its strength lies in averages, reminding us to interpret findings with a nuanced understanding of individual variations.

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Why do economists rely on statistics?

Economists use statistics to simplify complex economic realities, allowing them to identify patterns, relationships, and trends in data.

How does statistical analysis contribute to understanding economic trends?

Statistical analysis reveals patterns and correlations, helping economists identify trends in economic data and enable informed predictions and policy decisions.

How can statistical data impact economic decision-making?

Statistical data guides economic decisions by providing evidence-based insights, aiding policymakers and businesses in making informed choices for optimal outcomes.

What role does statistical analysis play in understanding market trends?

Statistical analysis uncovers market trends by examining data on prices, demand, and supply, enabling businesses to adapt strategies and investors to make informed decisions.

How does the collection of economic data contribute to statistical analysis?

Gathering economic data is crucial for statistical analysis, offering a foundation for assessing economic conditions, making predictions, and informing policies for sustainable development.

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