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Electric Vehicle Components and their Functions
Updated on 12th May, 23 117 Views

EV, short for Electric Vehicles,  charge their batteries with electricity rather than utilizing fossil fuels like gasoline or diesel. Electric vehicles are more efficient, and when paired with the cost of power, charging an electric vehicle is less expensive than filling it up with gas or diesel for your travel needs.

If you are interested to know various aspects of electric vehicles, then let’s dive deep to know more fascinating things related to electric vehicles.

These are the topics that we’ll discuss in this blog:

For a better understanding have a look at our Electric Vehicle Course Introduction Video

Electric Vehicle and its Working Principle

Electric vehicles play a critical role in fighting climate change throughout the world by lowering emissions and decreasing reliance on fossil fuels. 

Electric automobiles not only offer zero tailpipe emissions but also a much-reduced cost of ownership when compared to typical ICE-powered versions. While electric automobiles are less expensive to acquire than gasoline or diesel vehicles, they are also easier to maintain. This is because of the fact that electric vehicles have fewer components than conventional automobiles. 

A battery pack, power control unit, electric motor, gearbox, and battery charger are the main components of an electric automobile.

Let’s understand in detail how an electric motor works:

  • When you recharge the battery, the battery pack retains electric current. The energy that has been stored is used to power the electric engine and other accessories/components.
  • The supply of electric power to the motor is managed by a controller.
  • Depending on the data generated from the accelerator pedal, the controller controls the flow of power.
  • The electric motor draws energy from the battery and transforms it into mechanical energy.
  • The transmission is responsible for transferring mechanical power from the motor to the wheels.
  • Some EVs generate braking energy through regenerative braking. The energy created during vehicle braking or deceleration is returned to the battery pack.

Types of Electric Vehicles

There are four types of Electric Vehicles:

  1. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
  2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
  4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
Types of Electric Vehicles

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

A battery-powered electric vehicle (BEV), often known as an ‘All-Electric Vehicle (AEV)’, is a vehicle powered by a battery and a fully electric system.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

A Hybrid vehicle is often referred to as a conventional hybrid or a parallel hybrid. HEVs are powered by an IC Engine as well as an electric motor.

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Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

A PHEV, also known as a series hybrid, is a hybrid model that contains both an ICE and a motor.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), also known as fuel cell cars (FCVs) or Zero Emission Vehicles, are fully electric that generate energy using “Fuel Cell Technology.”

Want to learn about Electric Vehicles from the Experts? Here’s Intellipaat’s Electric Vehicle Training Course for your convenience.

Components of Electric Vehicles

The various components of an electric vehicle are:

Components of electric vehicle

Battery Pack

A battery is a device that retains electric charges. Anode, which is negatively charged, and cathode, which is positively charged, end up making up a battery. 

Because there has been an immoderate accumulation of electrons, which already have a negative charge, the anode is negatively charged. In contrast, a lack of electrons causes the cathode to be positively charged. 

But the basic workings of an EV battery pack are similar to those of a standard battery. 

The Electric Vehicle battery pack’s anode and cathode work in concert to produce power at the most fundamental level within each battery cell.

Electric Motor

The real power behind electric cars is provided by electric motors (EVs). The electric motor, together with the batteries and power electronics, is a crucial part of the electric vehicle. 

Radial flux is used throughout the whole EV market. But these days, several electric vehicle manufacturers, like Tesla, have begun to employ axial flux motor technology because of its many advantages, including higher engine power and increased torque density.

DC-DC Converter

The fundamental purpose of DC/DC converters is the same regardless of the model upon which they are built. 

A step-up converter transforms a low-voltage input into a high-voltage output, whereas a step-down converter does the exact reverse.

An electric vehicle’s batteries generally produce a DC voltage of several hundred volts. The voltage requirements for the electric parts within the car vary, albeit most of them operate at significantly lower voltages. 

A steady voltage is provided by the traction battery pack. But the criteria for various vehicle components vary. The battery’s output power is dispersed to the necessary level by the DC-DC converter. Additionally, it supplies the power needed to recharge the backup battery.

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Charger Port

The electric car is connected to an external source through the charging connector. The battery pack is being charged. The vehicle’s front or back may occasionally hold the charging port.


  • The transmission is not necessary for electric motors. 
  • Electric cars use a direct transmission system as opposed to the multi-speed transmissions seen in cars powered by fossil fuels. 
  • Electric vehicles employ drive mode selectors instead of standard transmission systems, which are less complicated and have fewer movable parts than conventional gearboxes.


The controller’s primary role is to monitor how much power is sent to the electric motors from the battery and inverter. Controller receives the majority of its feedback from the vehicle’s accelerator pedal(which is set by the driver). 

Additionally, the accelerator pedal regulates the voltage or frequency variations that feed the motor and increases the electric vehicle’s pace.

Thermal-System Cooling

This device ensures that the engine, electric motor, power systems, and other parts run within the ideal temperature zone.

Power Control Unit

The power control unit is a crucial component that transforms DC power generated by the battery back into AC power, which the majority of electric motors need. An inverter, a part used to power computers or other equipment utilizing a 12-volt plug in the vehicle’s dash, is utilized to finish this operation. 

The drivetrain is connected to the accelerator, start button, and drive mode controller via a power control unit. Additionally, it controls regenerative, which is how an EV sends energy back to the battery system when slowing.

Future of Electric Vehicles in India

According to Economic Times, India is now the fifth largest vehicle market in the world and is quickly approaching the top three markets, with an estimated 35 crore people needing transportation services by the year 2035. This shows how bright is the future of Electric Vehicles in India.

However, the rise in automobile ownership should not be construed as a rise in the use of conventional fossil fuels following the goals of the Paris Agreement.

To ensure a positive pace of progress toward India’s Net Zero Emissions by 2075, a mobility renaissance that will result in more ‘Accessibility’, public transportation, trains, roads, and improved automobiles are required in India.

Recently, both the general and automobile industry experts have concluded that electric cars are the way of the future. India still has a lot to do in this area, including building charging stations and producing batteries.


The EV sector has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to its excellent features that play a vital role in saving the ecosystem. New competitors are entering the market as a consequence of the rising demand for New Energy Vehicles (NEVs), making the EV sector more competitive than ever.

If you’re still in doubt, then visit Intellipaat’s Electric Vehicle Community page to gain more knowledge about Electric Vehicles.

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