Top Answers to Ethical Hacker Interview Questions
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hacking?
|It can be used to foil security attacks||It creates massive security issues|
|To plug the bugs and loopholes||Get unauthorized system access|
|It helps to prevent data theft||Stealing private information|
|Hacking prevents malicious attacks||Violating privacy regulations|
2. What is the difference between Asymmetric and Symmetric encryption?
|Asymmetric encryption||Symmetric encryption|
|Asymmetric encryption uses different keys for encryption and decryption.||Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption.|
|Asymmetric on the other hand is more secure but slow. Hence, a hybrid approach should be preferred.||Symmetric is usually much faster but the key needs to be transferred over an unencrypted channel.|
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3. How can you avoid ARP poisoning?
ARP poisoning is a type of network attack that can be resolved through these techniques:
Using Packet filtering: Packet filters can filter out & block packets with clashing source address data.
Keeping away from trust relationship: Organizations ought to develop a protocol that depends on trust relationship as little as they can.
Utilize ARP spoofing software: Some programs assess and certify information before it is transmitted and blocks any information that is spoofed.
4. What do you understand by footprinting in ethical hacking? What are the techniques utilized for foot printing?
Footprinting is nothing but accumulating and revealing as much as data about the target network before gaining access into any network.
Open Source Footprinting : It will search for the contact data of administrators that will be utilized for guessing password in Social Engineering
Network Enumeration : The hacker attempts to distinguish the domain names and the network blocks of the target network
Scanning : After the network is known, the second step is to spy the active IP addresses on the network. For distinguishing active IP addresses (ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol is a functioning IP addresses
Stack Fingerprinting : the final stage of foot printing step can be performed, once the hosts and port have been mapped by examining the network, this is called Stack fingerprinting.
5. What do you mean by DOS (Denial of administration) assault? Explain. What are the regular types of DOS assault?
Denial of Service, is a malicious attack on network that is executed by flooding the system with useless traffic. Despite the fact that DOS does not cause any data breach or security breach, it can cost the site proprietor a lot of cash and time.
- Buffer Overflow Attacks
- SYN Attack
- Teardrop Attack
- Smurf Attack
6. What is Pharming and Defacement?
Pharming : In this strategy the attacker compromises the DNS (Domain Name System) servers or on the user PC with the goal that traffic is directed towards malicious site
Defacement : In this strategy the attacker replaces the firm’s site with an alternate page. It contains the hacker’s name, images and may even incorporate messages and background music.
7. What is Cowpatty?
Cowpattyis implemented on an offline dictionary attack against WPA/WPA2 networks utilizing PSK-based verification (e.g. WPA-Personal). Cowpatty can execute an enhanced attack if a recomputed PMK document is accessible for the SSID that is being assessed.
8. What is Network Enumeration?
Network Enumeration is the revelation of hosts/gadgets on a network, they tend to utilize obvious disclosure protocols, for example, ICMP and SNMP to gather data, they may likewise check different ports on remote hosts for looking for surely known services trying to further recognize the function of a remote host.
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9. Distinguish between phishing and spoofing?
Phishing and spoofing are totally different beneath the surface. One downloads malware to your PC or network, and the other part tricks you into surrendering sensitive monetary data to a cyber-crook. Phishing is a technique for recovery, while spoofing is a method for delivery.
10. Why is Python utilized for hacking?
Most broadly utilized scripting language for Hackers is Python. Python has some very critical highlights that make it especially valuable for hacking, most importantly, it has some pre-assembled libraries that give some intense functionality.
11. What can an ethical hacker do?
An ethical hacker is a computer system and networking master who systematically endeavours to infiltrate a PC framework or network for the benefit of its owners to find security vulnerabilities that a malicious hacker could potentially exploit.
12. What is network sniffing?
System sniffing includes utilizing sniffer tools that empower real- time monitoring and analysis of data streaming over PC systems. Sniffers can be utilized for various purposes, regardless of whether it’s to steal data or manage systems.
Network sniffing is utilized for ethical and unethical purposes. System administrators utilize these as system monitoring and analysis tool to analyse and avoid network related issues, for example, traffic bottlenecks. Cyber criminals utilize these devices for untrustworthy purposes, for example, character usurpation, email, delicate information hijacking etc.
13. What is the difference between encryption and hashing?
|Encryption is reversible||Hashing is irreversible|
|Encryption ensures confidentiality||Hashing ensures Integrity|
14. What is CIA Triangle?
- Confidentiality : Keeping the information secret.
- Integrity : Keeping the information unaltered.
- Availability : Information is available to the authorised parties at all times.
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15. What is the difference between VA and PT?
|Vulnerability Assessment||Penetration testing|
|Vulnerability Assessment is an approach used to find flaws in an application/network||It is the practice of finding exploitable vulnerabilities like a real attacker will do|
|It is like travelling on the surface||It is digging for gold.|
16. What is a firewall?
A firewall could be a device that allows/blocks traffic as per outlined set of rules. These are placed on the boundary of trusted and untrusted networks.
17. What is data leakage? How will you detect and prevent it?
Data leak is nothing but data knowledge getting out of the organization in an unauthorized manner. Data will get leaked through numerous ways in which – emails, prints, laptops obtaining lost, unauthorized transfer of data to public portals, removable drives, pictures etc. There are varied controls which may be placed to make sure that the info doesn’t get leaked, many controls will be limiting upload on web websites, following an internal encryption answer, limiting the emails to the interior network, restriction on printing confidential data etc.
18. What are the hacking stages? Explain each stage.
Hacking, or targeting on a machine, should have the following 5 phases :
Surveillance : This is the principal stage where the hacker endeavours to gather as much data as possible about the target
Scanning : This stage includes exploiting the data accumulated amid Surveillance stage and utilizing it to inspect the casualty. The hacker can utilize computerized devices amid the scanning stage which can incorporate port scanners, mappers and vulnerability scanners.
Getting access : This is where the real hacking happens. The hacker attempts to exploit data found amid the surveillance and Scanning stage to get access.
Access Maintenance : Once access is gained, hackers need to keep that access for future exploitation and assaults by securing their exclusive access with backdoors, rootkits and Trojans.
Covering tracks : Once hackers have possessed the capacity to pick up and maintain access, they cover their tracks and to keep away from getting detected. This likewise enables them to proceed with the utilization of the hacked framework and keep themselves away from legitimate activities.
19. What are the tools used for ethical hacking?
There are several moral hacking tools out there within the marketing for different purposes, they are:
- NMAP – NMAP stands for Network plotter. It’s associate degree open source tool that’s used wide for network discovery and security auditing.
- Metasploit – Metasploit is one amongst the most powerful exploit tool to conduct basic penetration tests.
- Burp Suit – Burp Suite could be a widespread platform that’s widely used for playing security testing of internet applications.
- Angry IP Scanner – Angry information processing scanner could be a light-weight, cross-platform information processing address and port scanner.
- Cain & Abel – Cain & Abel is a password recovery tool for Microsoft operational Systems.
- Ettercap – Ettercap stands for local area network Capture. It is used for Man-in-the-Middle attack using a network security tool.
20. What is MAC Flooding?
MAC Flooding is a kind of a technique wherever the protection of given network switch is compromised. In MAC flooding the hacker floods the switch with sizable amounts of frames, than what a switch can handle. This makes switch behaving as a hub and transmits all packetsto all the ports existing. Taking the advantage of this the attacker can attempt to send his packet within the network to steal the sensitive information.
21. Explain how you can stop your website getting hacked?
By adapting following methodology you’ll be able to stop your web site from obtaining hacked
- Using Firewall : Firewall may be accustomed drop traffic from suspicious information processing address if attack may be an easy DOS
- Encrypting the Cookies : Cookie or Session poisoning may be prevented by encrypting the content of the cookies, associating cookies with the consumer information processing address and temporal arrangement out the cookies once it slow
- Validating and confirmative user input : This approach is prepared to stop the type tempering by confirmative and verifying the user input before processing it
- Header Sanitizing and validation : This technique is beneficial against cross website scripting or XSS, this method includes verifying and sanitizing headers, parameters passed via the address, type parameters and hidden values to cut back XSS attacks.
22. What is Burp Suite? What are the tools does it contain?
Burp Suite is an integrated platform used for attacking net applications. It contains all the tools a hacker would need for attacking any application. a number of these functionalities are
23. What is SQL injection and its types?
If the application doesn’t sanitize the user input then the SQL injection happens. Thus a malicious hacker would inject SQL question to gain unauthorized access and execute administration operations on the database. SQL injections may be classified as follows:
- Error-based SQL injection
- Blind SQL injection
- Time-based SQL injection
24. What's a denial of service (DOS) attack and what are the common forms?
DOS attacks involve flooding servers, systems or networks with traffic to cause over-consumption of victim resources. This makes it troublesome or not possible for legitimate users to access or use targeted sites.
Common DOS attacks include:
- Buffer overflow attacks
- ICMP flood
- SYN flood
- Teardrop attack
- Smurf attack
25. Which programming language is used for hacking?
It’s best, actually, to master all 5 of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the foremost vital hacking languages, they represent totally different approaches to programming, and each of it can educate you in valuable ways.
26. What is meant by spoofing attack?
A spoofing attack is when a malicious party impersonates another device or user on a network so as to launch attacks against network hosts, steal data, unfold malware or bypass access controls. Different Spoofing attacks are deployed by malicious parties to achieve this.
27. What are the different types of spoofing?
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- IP Spoofing Attack.
28. What is active and passive reconnaissance?
Passive reconnaissance is nothing but to gain info regarding targeted computers and networks while not actively participating with the systems. In active reconnaissance, in distinction, the attacker engages with the target system, usually conducting a port scan to find any open ports.
29. Differentiate Between a MAC and an IP Address?
All networks across devices are assigned a number which is unique, which is termed as MAC or Machine Access Control address. This address may be a personal mail box on the net. The network router identifies it. the amount may be modified anytime.All devices get their distinctive information processing address so they can be located easily on a given laptop and network. Whoever is aware of your distinctive information processing address will contact you through it.
30. What is SSL and why is it not enough when it comes to encryption?
SSL is identity verification, not hard encryption. it’s designed to be able to prove that the person you’re engaging on the other side is who they say they are. SSL and TLS are each used by almost everyone online, however because of this it is a huge target and is mainly attacked through its implementation (The Heartbleed bug for example) and its far-famed methodology.