Technologies used by iOS

IOS provides frameworks that define particular sets of functionality from gaming and media to security and data management which you can integrate into your app. UIKit framework is used to design your app’s user interface and the Foundation framework to incorporate common data structures and behavior into your code. These are two of the most common frameworks used in iOS app development.
User Interface
1. UIKit – Its classes allow you create a touch based user interface. Because all iOS apps are based on UIKit, you can’t ship an app without this framework. It gives the infrastructure for drawing to the screen, handling events and creating common user interface elements. UIKit also arranges a complex app by organizing the content that’s showed on the screen.
2. Core Graphics – It is a low level, C based framework. It is the workhorse for handling high quality vector graphics, path based drawing, transformations, images, data management and more.
The easiest and most efficient way to create graphics in iOS is to use prerendered images with the standard views and controls of the UIKit framework. Because UIKit is a higher-level framework which also provides classes for custom drawing including paths, colors, patterns, gradients, images, text, and transformations.
3. Core Animation – Its interfaces are part of the Quartz Core framework. To create higher level animations and visual effects use Core Animation. UIKit provides animations that are built on top of the Core Animation technology.
If you require advanced animations further than the capabilities of UIKit, use Core Animation directly. You can create a hierarchy of layer objects that you manipulate, rotate, scale, transform. Core Animation’s familiar view-like abstraction lets you can create dynamic user interfaces without having to use low-level graphics APIs such as OpenGL ES.
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1. GameKit – This framework provides leaderboards, achievements and other features to add to your iOS game.
2. SpriteKit – This framework provides graphics support for animating arbitrary textured images or sprites. In addition to being a graphics engine, it also contains physics support to bring objects to life. It is a good option for games and other apps that need complex animation chains.
3. OpenGL ES – It is a low level framework that supports hardware accelerated 2D and 3D drawing. Apple’s implementation of the OpenGL ES standard works intimately with the device hardware to give high frame rates for full screen, game-style apps. Because It is a low-level, hardware focused API, it has a steep learning curve and a significant effect on the overall design of your app.
4. Game Controller – This framework makes it simple to search controllers connected to a Mac or iOS device. When a controller is opened on your device, your game examines control inputs as part of its normal gameplay. These controllers give new ways for players to control your game. Apple has designed specifications for hardware controllers to ensure that all controllers have consistent sets of control elements that both players and game designers can rely on.
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1. Core Data – It manages an app’s data model. Use it to create model objects which are known as managed objects. You manage relationships between those objects and make changes to the data through the framework. It takes benefit of the built  in SQLite technology to save and manage data competently.
2. Foundation – This framework defines a set of important base classes. Among other things this framework contains classes representing basic data types like as strings and numbers and collection classes for saving other objects.
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AV Foundation – It is one of several frameworks that you can use to play and create time based audio visual media. For e.g. use AV Foundation to observe, create, edit or reencode media files. You can also use it to obtain input streams from devices and manipulate video during real time capture and playback.

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