|License||Amazon proprietary||Open Source|
|Operating System||Whatever cloud administrator provides||Whatever AMIs provided by AWS|
|Performing repeatable operations||Through templates||Through text files|
Most multinational organizations define OpenStack as the future of Cloud Computing. The Internet and large volumes of data together have instigated the purpose of cloud computing, and OpenStack is one such platform to create and handle massive groups of virtual machines through a Graphical User Interface. It is a set of efficient software tools to manage private and public cloud computing platforms.
Openstack is free, open-source software and works similar to Linux.
Openstack is useful in developing any software-as-a-service (SAAS) applications, for new developments or to improve existing solutions.
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OpenStack Cloud Operating system supports two types of storage:
Persistent Storage: Persistent and independent of any particular instance, created by users. This further includes three storages:
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Users can be members of multiple projects
Tenant is a group of users and an alternative term for Project/accounts where projects are organizational units in cloud processing
Role is the position to which a user is mapped (the authorization level). Roles are usually assigned to project-user duos.
Keystone is the most important and preferred Identity Service in OpenStack and executes the complete OpenStack Identity API. The Keystone Identity Service is responsible for user management and service catalog. In user management, it tracks users and their permissions while Service Catalog offers a list of services available with their API. The former provides authentication credential details of users, tenants and roles.
Internal services like Token and Policy are also part of Keystone Identity
Flat Network Manager: This places all VMs on a single network utilizing the same subnet and bridge as created by the administrator. Thus, all VMs share the same network that can be interconnected and are known to have Flat Network Manager.
$ novaunpause INSTANCE_NAME
$ nova pause INSTANCE_NAME
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Token is a type of authentication similar to password-based validation. A token gets generated once the user inserts the credentials and authenticates as a Keystone user. The token can then be used to access OpenStack services without any revalidation. It is interesting to note that a token is active for a limited period and must be renewed after regular intervals.
To create a token, users first need to authenticate their Keystone credentials.
Python SDK (Software Development Kit) helps users to write applications for performing automation tasks in Python by calling Python objects. It provides a platform to work with multiple OpenStack services at one place. It consists of language bindings to access OpenStack clouds, complete API reference, easy interaction with REST API and sample code for initial applications.
The Filter Scheduler facilitates filtering and weighting to notify where a new instance can be created. It supports working with Compute Nodes. Filter Scheduler firstly creates an unfiltered dictionary of hosts and then filter them using related properties and makes the final selection of hosts for the number of instances as needed.
For all cloud computing paltforms, Hypervisor is a term to define virtual machine monitor (VMM) including hardware, software and firmware components running on a virtual machine. Host machine is the one having hypervisor with one or more virtual machines.
OpenStack Compute allows multiple hypervisors. There are functionalities to choose one among them for a specific purpose.
The three important components of OpenStack modular architecture are:
Bare-metal node grants access to control bare-metal driver that handles the provisioning of OpenStack Compute physical hardware utilizing the standard cloud APIs and tools like Heat. It is generally used for single tenant clouds like high-performance cluster computing. For using the bare-metal driver, a network interface must be created with the bare-metal node inserted into it. Afterwards, users can launch an instance from the node. Users can also list and delete bare-metal nodes by removing the associated network instances
Nova (Compute) Cloud comprises following components:
It provides an interface for the external world to interact with the cloud infrastructure.
Flavors are virtual hardware templates present in OpenStack, which define the memory sizes of RAM, hard disk, etc. Flavors illustrate a number of parameters like ID, Name, Memory_MB, Disk and others, giving a choice of Virtual Machine to the user just like having a physical server. OpenStack dashboard also allows users to modify a flavor by deleting the existing one and creating a new with the similar name and parameters.
sudo nova-manage user create user-name
By using the command sudo nova-manage user create user-name
Yes, by using keystone role-list