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Vectors

Vectors are the basic R data objects and there are 6 types of the atomic vectors.

They can be integer, logical, double, complex, character and raw

Creation of Vector

Single Element Vector

Whenever 1 word is written in R, it becomes a vector of length 1 and fit in one of the above vector types.

#Atomic vector of integer type

print(52L)

#Logical type

print(TRUE)

Output: sol <- nchar(“Counting number of

[1] 52     

[1] TRUE

 

Multiple Elements Vector

  • Using Colon operator with numeric data

This operator helps in a constant change over the numeric data with limits.

Example:

#Creating sequence

a<- 4:10

b<-2.2:4.2

print(a)

print(b)

Output:

[1] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

[1] 2.2 3.2 4.2

  • Using sequence(Seq.) operator

#Creating vector by incrementing by 0.2

print(seq(2, 3, by = 0.2))

Output:

[1]  2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

  • Accessing Vector Elements

Indexing helps access the elements of a vector. The[ ] brackets are used for indexing.

Indexing starts with number 1 position. A negative value in the index rejects that element from output.  0 and 1 or TRUE and FALSE can be used for indexing.

#accessing vector elements

x<- c(“letter one”, “letter two”, “letter three”, “four”, “five”, “six”)

b<- x[c(1,3,6)]

print(b)

#Usage of  logical Index

d<- x[c(FALSE, FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE)]

print(d)

#Using negative indexing

e<- x[c(-1,-2,-3,-4)]

print(e)

Output:

[1] “letter one” “letter three” “six”

[1] “letter three” “four”

[1] “five” “six”

 

Vector Manipulation

  • Vector arithmetic

Two vectors having the same length can do arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to get vector output.

  • Vector Element Recycling

When applying arithmetic operations to two vectors of unequal length, the elements of shorter vector are recycled to complete the operations.

Example:

a <- c(2,4,6,8)

b <- c(3,8)

#b becomes c(3,8,3,8)

add.op <- a+b

print(add.op)

 

Output:

[1]  5  12  9  16

  • Vector Element Sorting

Sorting of elements in a vector takes place in ascending or descending order. It can be either numbers or characters.

Example:

a <- c(2, 5, -6, 0)

#sorting elements of vector

sort.sol <- sort(a)

print(sort.sol)

 

#sorting character vectors in decreasing order

b <- c(“Blue”, “Red”, “Green”)

revsort.sol <- sort(b, decreasing = TRUE)

print(revsort.sol)

 

Output:

[1] -6 0 2 5

[1] “Blue” “Green” “Red”

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