# Vectors

Vectors are the basic R data objects and there are 6 types of the atomic vectors.

They can be integer, logical, double, complex, character and raw

**Creation of Vector**

**Single Element Vector**

Whenever 1 word is written in R, it becomes a vector of length 1 and fit in one of the above vector types.

*#Atomic vector of integer type*

*print(52L)*

*#Logical type*

*print(TRUE)*

Output: sol <- nchar(“Counting number of

*[1] 52 *

*[1] TRUE*

** **

**Multiple Elements Vector**

**Using Colon operator with numeric data**

This operator helps in a constant change over the numeric data with limits.

Example:

*#Creating sequence*

*a<- 4:10*

*b<-2.2:4.2*

*print(a)*

*print(b)*

Output:

*[1] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10*

*[1] 2.2 3.2 4.2*

**Using sequence(Seq.) operator**

*#Creating vector by incrementing by 0.2*

*print(seq(2, 3, by = 0.2))*

Output:

*[1] 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0*

**Accessing Vector Elements**

Indexing helps access the elements of a vector. The[ ] brackets are used for indexing.

Indexing starts with number 1 position. A negative value in the index rejects that element from output. 0 and 1 or TRUE and FALSE can be used for indexing.

*#accessing vector elements*

*x<- c(“letter one”, “letter two”, “letter three”, “four”, “five”, “six”)*

*b<- x[c(1,3,6)]*

*print(b)*

*#Usage of logical Index*

*d<- x[c(FALSE, FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE)] *

*print(d)*

*#Using negative indexing*

*e<- x[c(-1,-2,-3,-4)]*

*print(e)*

Output:

*[1] “letter one” “letter three” “six”*

*[1] “letter three” “four”*

*[1] “five” “six”*

** **

**Vector Manipulation**

**Vector arithmetic**

Two vectors having the same length can do arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to get vector output.

**Vector Element Recycling**

When applying arithmetic operations to two vectors of unequal length, the elements of shorter vector are recycled to complete the operations.

Example:

*a <- c(2,4,6,8)*

*b <- c(3,8)*

*#b becomes c(3,8,3,8)*

*add.op <- a+b*

*print(add.op)*

* *

Output:

*[1] 5 12 9 16*

**Vector Element Sorting**

Sorting of elements in a vector takes place in ascending or descending order. It can be either numbers or characters.

Example:

*a <- c(2, 5, -6, 0) *

*#sorting elements of vector*

*sort.sol <- sort(a)*

*print(sort.sol)*

* *

*#sorting character vectors in decreasing order*

*b <- c(“Blue”, “Red”, “Green”)*

*revsort.sol <- sort(b, decreasing = TRUE)*

*print(revsort.sol)*

* *

Output:

*[1] -6 0 2 5*

*[1] “Blue” “Green” “Red”*

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