**Introduction to R**

In this R Programming Tutorial, we will start off by learning what exactly is R.

- R is an open-source tool
- R is also a cross-platform compatible language
- R is a great visualization tool
- R is used for data science and machine learning tasks.

Now, let’s explore each of these traits of R.

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## R Programming for Beginners **Video**

**R: Open Source Tool**

Since R is an open-source programming language, you can download it for free and start to learn R Programming. And if you already are an expert at R Programming, you can contribute to the R Community by creating your own packages which the entire R community can use. So, you can add your own innovations to the existing set of libraries in R.

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**R: Cross-Platform Compatible Language**

Since R is a cross-platform compatible language, you can run the same R code in multiple operating systems. Let’s say, you are using a windows system, but your client has a MAC, you don’t have to worry at all, because your R code will run without any problems on your client’s system.

**R: Visualization Tool**

R is a great visualization tool. It provides multiple packages such as ggplot2, ggvis and plotly with which we can create stunning visualizations. This is also one of the major reasons why people learn R Programming. When it comes to visualization R is far ahead when compared to Python.

**R: Data Science and Machine Learning Tool**

With the help of R language, you can implement various machine learning algorithms such as Linear Regression, Decision Tree and Naïve Bayes.

Going ahead in this R Programming Tutorial, we will see which companies are using R and for what purpose.

**Get familiar with the top R Programming Interview Questions to get a head start in your career!**

**Companies using R**

- Google: R is a language that is widely used by Google. Google has a project called Google Flu Trends, which uses R to estimate current flu activity. Google also uses R Programming to make their advertising more effective.
- Facebook: If you have a Facebook account, then you’d probably be updating your status and putting up profile pictures. Facebook is able to this with the help of R programming
- Airbnb: Airbnb have created their own R package called ‘Rbnb’ for the purpose of visualization of data scaling

Next up in this R Programming Tutorial, we will also see the salary trends for experts in R Programming.

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**Salary Trends for R Programming**

According to O’Reilly Data Scientist Survey, the median salary for R skills is around $115,000. With R skills, you have an opportunity to apply for different job roles such as:

- Statistical Analyst
- Data Analyst
- Data Scientist
- Machine Learning Engineer

So, salary and an exciting career should definitely be a good motivator for you to learn R Programming.

Going ahead in the further modules of this R Programming Tutorial, you will learn different aspects of R Programming.

**Table of Contents**

### What is R Programming?

**What is R Programming Language?**

R is a programming language and an analytics tool that was developed in 1993 by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka in the University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. It is extensively used by Software Programmers, Statisticians, Data Scientists, and Data Miners. It is one of the most popular analytics tool used in Data Analytics and Read More

### Variables and Data Types in R Programming

**Basic Syntax in R**

There are two ways to write code in RStudio:- first, in the command prompt and, second, in the R script file. We will go through both one by one. Hello World Program in R Launch RStudio In the command prompt window, type the following and press Enter >print(“Hello, World!”) Output: [1] "Hello, World!" R Programs are Read More

### R Programming Operators

**Operators**

R has the following data operators: Arithmetic Assignment Logical Relational Miscellaneous Check this Intellipaat video on R Programming: Arithmetic These operators perform basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponent, modulus, etc. For example:- x <- 10 y <- 5 Addition x+y Output:15 Subtraction x-y Output:5 Multiplication x*y Output:50 Division x/y Read More

### Data Structures in R Programming

**Data Structures**

Data structures are used to store data in an organized fashion in order to make data manipulation and other data operations more efficient. There are five types of in R Programming which are mentioned below: Vector List Matrix Data Frame Factor Vector Vector is one of the basic data structures in R programming. It is homogenous Read More

### Vectors

**What are **Vectors**?**

Vectors are the basic R data objects and there are 6 types of the atomic vectors. They can be Integer, Logical, Double, Complex, Character and Raw Creation of Vector There are two types of vector creation: Single Element Vector Multiple Elements Vector Go for this in-depth job-oriented R Programming Training Course now! Single Element Vector Whenever 1 Read More

### Lists

**What are Lists?**

Lists are the R objects with numbers, strings, vectors and another list or matrix inside it. Get familiar with the top R Programming Interview Questions to get a head start in your career! Creating a List Example to create a list containing numbers, strings, vectors, and logical values. #creating a list list_info <- list("Blue", "Yellow", c(12, 13, Read More

### Matrices

**What are Matrices?**

Matrices are the R objects wherein the elements are organized in a 2-D rectangular shape. In a matrix, it contains elements of the same atomic types. Kick-start your career in R Programming with the perfect R Programming Training Course now! Matrix function is denoted as a matrix(). Syntax matrix(data, nrow, ncol, byrow, dimnames) data is the parameter of Read More

### Strings

**What are **Strings**?**

The string is any value written either in a single quote or double quote. Internally R takes single quotes as double quotes only. Want to get certified in R! Learn R from top R experts and excel in your career with Intellipaat's R Programming certification! Valid Strings The quotes at the beginning and end of a string Read More

### Functions in R Programming

**Functions**

A function is a block of organized and reusable code that is used to perform a specific task in a program. A function is created by using the function keyword. The basic syntax of a function is given below: FunctionName <- function(arg1, arg2, ...) { Function Body } Want to get certified in R! Learn R from top R Read More

### Control Flow Statements in R – Decision Making and Loops

## Loops

Decision Making Decision making is a prime feature of any programming language. It allows us to make a decision, based on the result of a condition. Decision making is involved in order to change the sequence of the execution of statements, depending upon certain conditions. A set of statements is provided to the program, along with a condition. Statements get Read More

### How to import data in R Programming?

**Importing Data in R**

Importing data in R programming means that we can read data from external files, write data to external files, and can access those files from outside the R environment. File formats like CSV, XML, xlsx, JSON, and web data can be imported into the R environment to read the data and perform data analysis, and also Read More

### Data Manipulation in R

**Data Manipulation**

Data manipulation involves modifying data to make it easier to read and to be more organized. We manipulate data for analysis and visualization. It is also used with the term ‘data exploration’ which involves organizing data using available sets of variables. At times, the data collection process done by machines involves a lot of errors and inaccuracies in Read More

### Data Visualization in R

**Data Visualization**

Data visualization is a technique used for the graphical representation of data. By using elements like scatter plots, charts, graphs, histograms, maps, etc., we make our data more understandable. Data visualization makes it easy to recognize patterns, trends, and exceptions in our data. It enables us to convey information and results in a quick and visual way. It Read More

### Data Structures with R Cheat Sheet

**R Data Structures User Handbook**

Data Structures are used to organize and store the data on the computer. R programming is a language that supports particular types of Data Structures. Most of the industries use Data Structures and write them in particular programming languages such as R. Wish to get certified in R! Learn R from top R experts and excel Read More