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Introduction:

SQL is a basic query language which every programmer must know. This cheat sheet will guide you through the basic SQL commands required to learn and work on SQL.

Watch this SQL Tutorial for Beginners video

Further, to learn SQL in-depth, you can refer to the SQL tutorial.

You can also download the printable PDF of this SQL command cheat sheet

SQL Commands Cheat Sheet

SQL Commands:

The commands in SQL are called Queries and they are of two types

  • Data Definition Query: The statements which defines the structure of a database, create tables, specify their keys, indexes and so on
  • Data manipulation queries: These are the queries which can be edited.

E.g.: Select, update and insert operation

Basic Commands in SQL:

CommandSyntaxDescription
ALTER tableALTER TABLE table_name ADD column_name datatype;It is used to add columns to a table in a database
ANDSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_1 = value_1  AND column_2 = value_2;It is an operator that is used to combine two conditions
ASSELECT column_name AS ‘Alias’FROM table_name;It is an keyword in SQL that is used to rename a column or table using an alias name
AVGSELECT AVG(column_name)FROM table_name;It is used to aggregate a numeric column and return its average
BETWEENSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name BETWEEN value_1 AND value_2;It is an operator used to filter the result within a certain range
CASESELECT column_name,CASEWHEN condition THEN ‘Result_1’WHEN condition THEN ‘Result_2’ELSE ‘Result_3’ENDFROM table_name;It is a statement used to create different outputs inside a SELECT statement
COUNTSELECT COUNT(column_name)FROM table_name;It is a function that takes the name of a column as argument and counts the number of rows when the column is not NULL
Create TABLECREATE TABLE table_name (  column_1 datatype,   column_2 datatype,   column_3 datatype);It is used to create a new table in a database and specify the name of the table and columns inside it
DELETEDELETE FROM table_nameWHERE some_column = some_value;It is used to remove the rows from a table
GROUP BYSELECT column_name, COUNT(*)FROM table_nameGROUP BY column_name;It is an clause in SQL used for aggregate functions in collaboration with the SELECT statement
HAVINGSELECT column_name, COUNT(*)FROM table_nameGROUP BY column_nameHAVING COUNT(*) > value;It is used in SQL because the WHERE keyword cannot be used in aggregating functions
INNER JOINSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_1JOIN table_2  ON table_1.column_name = table_2.column_name;It is used to combine rows from different tables if the Join condition goes TRUE
INSERTINSERT INTO table_name (column_1, column_2, column_3) VALUES (value_1, ‘value_2’, value_3);It is used to add new rows to a table
IS NULL/ IS NOT NULLSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name IS NULL;It is an operator used with the WHERE clause to check for the empty values
LIKESELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name LIKE pattern;It is a special operator used with the WHERE clause to search for a specific pattern in a column
LIMITSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameLIMIT number;It is a clause to specify the maximum number of rows the result set must have
MAXSELECT MAX(column_name)FROM table_name;It is a function that takes number of columns as an argument and return the largest value among them
MINSELECT MIN(column_name)FROM table_name;It is a function that takes number of columns as an argument and return the smallest value among them
ORSELECT column_nameFROM table_nameWHERE column_name = value_1   OR column_name = value_2;It is an operator that is used to filter the result set to contain only the rows where either condition is TRUE
ORDER BYSELECT column_nameFROM table_nameORDER BY column_name ASC | DESC;It is a clause used to sort the result set by a particular column either numerically or alphabetically
OUTER JOINSELECT column_name(s)FROM table_1LEFT JOIN table_2  ON table_1.column_name = table_2.column_name;It is sued to combine rows from different tables even if the condition is NOT TRUE
ROUNDSELECT ROUND(column_name, integer)FROM table_name;It is a function that takes the column name and a integer as an argument, and rounds the values in a column to the number of decimal places specified by an integer
SELECTSELECT column_name FROM table_name;It is a statement that is used to fetch data from a database
SELECT DISTINCTSELECT DISTINCT column_nameFROM table_name;It is used to specify that the statement is a query which returns unique values in specified columns
SUMSELECT SUM(column_name)FROM table_name;It is function used to return sum of values from a particular column
UPDATEUPDATE table_nameSET some_column = some_valueWHERE some_column = some_value;It is used to edit rows in a atble
WHERESELECT column_name(s)FROM table_nameWHERE column_name operator value;It is a clause used to filter the result set to include the rows which where the condition is TRUE
WITHWITH temporary_name AS (SELECT *FROM table_name)SELECT *FROM temporary_nameWHERE column_name operator value;It is used to store the result of a particular query in a temporary table using an alias

Commands and syntax for querying data from single table and multiple tables:

Single TableMultiple Table

SELECT c1 FROM t

To select the data in Column c1 from table t

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1

INNER JOIN t2 on condition

 

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and perform an inner join between t1 and t2

SELECT * FROM t

To select all rows and columns from table t

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1

LEFT JOIN t2 on condition

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and perform a left join between t1 and t2

SELECT c1 FROM t

WHERE c1 = ‘test’

To select data in column c1 from table t, where c1=test

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1

RIGHT JOIN t2 on condition

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and perform a right join between t1 and t2

SELECT c1 FROM t

ORDER BY c1 ASC (DESC)

To select data in column c1 from table t either in ascending or descending order

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1

FULL OUTER JOIN t2 on condition

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and perform a full outer join between t1 and t2

SELECT c1 FROM t

ORDER BY c1LIMIT n OFFSET offset

To skip the offset of rows and return the next n rows

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1

CROSS JOIN t2

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and produce a Cartesian product of rows in a table

SELECT c1, aggregate(c2)

FROM t

GROUP BY c1

To group rows using an aggregate function

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1, t2

 

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and produce a Cartesian product of rows in a table

SELECT c1, aggregate(c2)

FROM t

GROUP BY c1HAVING condition

Group rows using an aggregate function and filter these groups using ‘HAVING’ clause

SELECT c1, c2

FROM t1 A

INNER JOIN t2 B on condition

Select column c1 and c2 from table t1 and join it to itself using INNER JOIN clause

Download a Printable PDF of this Cheat Sheet

With this, we come to an end of SQL commands Cheat sheet. To get in-depth knowledge, check out our interactive, live-online SQL Developer, SQL DBA Training Masters Program here, that comes with 24*7 support to guide you throughout your learning period. Intellipaat’s SQL online training equips you with you with managing the database solutions, managing various operations on databases, migrate it to the cloud and scale on demand.

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