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Top Answers to Terraform Interview Questions

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The adoption of cloud computing has increased in recent years, opening the door to many new opportunities. The sheer variety and volume of jobs available in cloud computing have made it appealing to many aspirants.

What is the appeal of Terraform?

This is because every aspect of the cloud computing landscape is important to all IT professional jobs. The trend of tools like Terraform can be attributed to the growth of DevOps. Terraform interview questions will be required if you want to advance in your career. We have compiled a list of the most frequently asked terraform interview questions, which cover all levels:

This blog covers the following topics:

Q1. What is Terraform?
Q2. What do you mean Terraform init?
Q3. Who are Terraform’s main competitors?
Q4. What is a Terraform provider?
Q5. What is the Terraform Work Process?
Q6. Explain the workflow of the core terraform?
Q7. Define Terragrunt?
Q8. Explain the Terraform request flow architecture
Q9. What Terraform commands are the most useful?
Q10. Explain Resource Graph in Terraform.

1. What is Terraform?

Terraform is an infrastructure as code tool that allows you to specify cloud and on-premises resources in human-readable configuration files that can be versioned, reused, and shared.

After that, you can utilize a standardized procedure to provide and manage all of your infrastructures throughout their lifespan. Terraform can manage both low-level components like compute, storage, and networking resources as well as high-level components like DNS records and SaaS functionality.

2. What do you mean Terraform init?

Terraform initializes the code with the terraform init command. The working directory for the Terraform configuration files is created with this command. It is acceptable to execute this command many times.

The init command can be used for:

  1. Plugin Installation
  2. Child Module Installation
  3. The backend is being set up.

3. Who are Terraform's main competitors?

The main competitors are:

  • Ansible
  • Packer
  • Cloud Foundry
  • Kubernetes

Check out this video for to know more about Terraform:

Top 25 Terraform Interview Questions & Answers [2022]

4. What is a Terraform provider?

Terraform is a software application for controlling and informing infrastructure resources such as physical computers, virtual machines (VMs), network switches, containers, and others. API interactions that are smart and disclose resources are the responsibility of the provider. Terraform collaborates with a wide range of cloud providers.

5. What is the Terraform Work Process?

Terraform init is used at the initial step to generate an operational directory including all Terraform configuration file contents.

The Terraform plan, as the name implies, is to apply an execution strategy in a specific stage of development. It is significant since it will serve as the judging criteria to determine whether the expectations are reached.

Terraform apply will guarantee that the plan is implemented within the timeframe specified in order to achieve the needed intended state of the infrastructure.

Terraform destruction is the last stage in which this technology is utilized to remove all deployed resources.

6. Explain the workflow of the core terraform?

Core Terraform’s  workflow process consists of three steps:

The workflow of the Core Terraform

  • Write – Create infrastructure using coding
  • Plan – Before executing the modifications, make a plan in advance to observe how they will seem.
  • Apply – Apply to build an architecture that is repeatable.

7. Define Terragrunt?

Terragrunt is a thin, covering layer that is used to cover terraform. This layer assists in the implementation of terraform-advocated and validated techniques. Terragrunt is useful for writing code on Terraform, but it is only available once. This reduces the need to develop code for each environment structure and deletes redundant code.

It has several capabilities, such as lifespan, and it also gives flexibility when utilizing Terraform by supporting a continuous deployment process.

8. Explain the Terraform request flow architecture

Command Line Interface (CLI):

Despite some preliminary bootstrapping in the root package, execution of the Terraform program immediately moves to one of the commanding package’s “command” versions when a user launches it.

The command names and command package types are mapped together and saved in the command. The file system of the repository contains the go file.

The function of the command execution for these instructions is to read and examine any command-line parameters, command-line variables, and environment variables required for the provided operation and use them to construct a backend. aim of the operation The action is then transmitted to the backend that is currently selected.

Backend:

A Terraform backend is in charge of several things:

  • Deploy appropriate operations (e.g. plan, apply)
  • Variables that have been defined in the workspace can be saved.
  • To keep track of the current status

The local backend loads and performs initial processing/validation on the configuration specified in the operation using the config loader after first using a state supervisor (either statemgr. Filesystem if indeed the local backend is being used effectively, or an execution supplied via whatever backend is now being encased) to recover the present state for the working space stipulated in the procedure.

With these inputs and the additional parameters given via the procedure, it then creates a terraform—context object. The main item that performs actions is terraforming.

Architecture of Terraform

Configuration Loader:

Model types stand in for the upper configuration structure in package configurations. Config is used to symbolize a configuration (the root module and all of its child modules). The config load is the main access point, despite the fact that the configs package offers some limited configuration object generation capabilities.

The configload subpackage contains a loader. Intricacies of installing child modules (during Terraform init) and locating such modules when a configuration is loaded by a backend are handled by a loader. To create a single configuration, it loads all of the child modules recursively after taking the path to the root module.

State Manager:

  • Frames of a workspace’s Terraform state must be saved and retrieved by the state manager.
  • The vast majority of managers handle the entire set of statemgr, whereas each manager handles a portion of the document’s protocols.
  • Complete the entire procedure
  • There is no reason to construct a state manager that doesn’t integrate all of statemgr; alternative function declarations often use the smaller protocols to define what operations the module may carry out on the state manager.

Graph Builder:

  • The Context method calls a graph builder.
  • A graph builder is utilized to illustrate the key phases in the process as well as their interdependencies.
  • Due to variations in the graph-building procedure, each action has its own graph builder.

A graph must be generated directly from the configuration for a “plan” operation, whereas a graph is constructed from the set of adjustments indicated in the plan being applied for a “apply” action.

Graph Walk:

  • The graph walking method explores each vertices of the graph while taking into consideration what “happens after” the edges of the graph.
  • Every vertices in the graph is evaluated such that “happens after” edges are taken into consideration.
  • The graph walk method attempts to evaluate several vertices simultaneously.

Vertex Evaluation:

  • Execution describes the process that takes place for each vertex throughout a graph walk.
  • Execution carries out a set of arbitrary operations appropriate for the relevant edge type.
  • Just before graph walk evaluates additional edges with “happens after” edges, one vertex must be completed successfully.
  • The graph walk is stopped and the user is given the errors when one or more mistakes are made during evaluation.

9. What Terraform commands are the most useful?

Here are some useful Terraform Commands

  • fmt
  • init
  • validate
  • plan
  • apply
  • destroy
  • output
  • show
  • state
  • version

10. Explain Resource Graph in Terraform.

A resource graph is a graphical presentation of the resources that are accessible. It allows for the simultaneous alternation and generation of separate resources.

Terraform generates plans and refreshes the state by creating a plan for the graph’s configuration. It promptly and successfully builds structure to assist us in understanding the drawbacks.

11. Define Dependencies in Terraform?

You can use depends_on to identify the dependency. You may also use the relies on the parameter to indicate several resources, and Terraform will build the target resource when all of them have been built.

12. What do you mean by State File Locking?

State file locking is a Terraform technique that prohibits multiple users from doing actions on the same state file at the same time. Once one user’s lock on a state file is released, any other user who has a lock on it can act on it.

This helps to prevent state file corruption. A backend operation is gaining a lock on a state file in the backend. If getting a lock on the state file takes longer than intended, a status message will be produced.

13. Mention some of the version control tools that Terraform supports.

Terraform supports the following version control tools:

  • GitHub
  • GitLab CE
  • Bucket Cloud
  • GitLab EE

14. Define Terraform cloud?

Terraform Cloud is software that enables teams to work together on Terraform. It provides features such as easy access to shared state and secret data, access controls for approving infrastructure changes, a private registry for sharing Terraform modules, detailed policy controls for governing the contents of Terraform configurations, and more to ensure that Terraform runs in a consistent and reliable environment.

15. What do you mean by Modules in Terraform?

In Terraform, a module is a container for various resources that are utilized in collaboration. The root module is required for any Terraform that includes resources listed in.tf files.

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16. How to Ignore the Error Duplicate Resource when applying Terraform?

Depending on the criteria, solutions might change.

To terminate handling the resources, remove them from the Terraform code.

By using terraform, you may destroy and regenerate resources through the API.

Execute an importing action to delete the resources and the code that is attempting to rebuild them.

17. What are some of the notable applications that make Terraform useful?

Due to the general ability to terraform, the applications are highly remarkable and diverse in general.

The applications are as follows:

  • Clusters of self-service
  • Multi-tier application development
  • Environment creation
  • Resource allocation
  • Creating a software demonstration
  • Heroku app installation

18. What is the purpose of Terraform in DevOps?

Terraform is a flexible tool for designing infrastructure using a proper code style. It is advantageous to have total orchestration control, similar to puppet and ansible.

Terraform is an efficient and well-structured cloud platform that supports all of the main cloud providers such as GCP, Azure, and AWS.

It is simple to manage due to its dynamic framework, which allows for easy configuration changes. It may also be easily switched from one supplier to another.

It may be run on the masterless and client-only architecture mainframes with correct installation and use of all APIs.

19. What are the main characteristics of Terraform?

  • Infrastructure as Code: Terraform’s high-level configuration language is used to describe your structure in logical file types that are human-readable.
  • You can now create a blueprint that is editable, shareable, and reusable.
  • Before making any infrastructure changes, Terraform develops an execution plan that outlines what it will perform and requests your consent. Before Terraform produces, upgrades, or destroys infrastructure, you may evaluate the changes.
  • Terraform generates a resource graph while developing or modifying non-dependent resources. Terraform can now construct resources rapidly while also providing you with additional information about your infrastructure.

20. What do you mean by IAC?

IaC is an abbreviation for “Infrastructure as Code.” IaC refers to a technique in which developers may run and provide computer data centres automatically rather than engaging in a physical process. Terraform IAC  is an example of an IAC tool.

21. How do you define a null resource in Terraform?

The null resource follows the typical resource lifetime but does nothing else. The trigger parameter enables the setting of a subjective set of values that, if misrepresented, will result in the replacement of the reserve.

The principal use of the null resource is as a do-nothing container for arbitrary operations done by a provisioner.

22. Is Terraform suitable for on-premise infrastructure?

Yes, Terraform can be used to construct infrastructure on-premises. There are several services to choose from. You can choose whichever one best meets your requirements. Many individuals construct their own client Terraform providers; all that is necessary is an API.

23. What are some of the built-in provisioners available in Terraform?

Here is a list of Terraform’s built-in provisioners:

  • Salt-masterless Provisioner
  • Puppet Provisioner
  • File Provisioner
  • Chef Provisioner
  • Remote-exec Provisioner
  • Local-exec Provisioner
  • Habitat Provisioner

24. What are the Elements of Terraform architecture?

The Terraform architecture has the following characteristics:

  • Expression Evaluation
  • CLI (Command Line interface)
  • Vertex Evaluation
  • Sub-graphs
  • State Manager
  • Configuration Loader
  • Graph Walk
  • Graph Builder
  • Backend

25. What are some of the most recent Terraform Azure Provider factors?

The most recent versions include additional data resources and Azurem batch certificate, which aids in certificate management. In networking, this resource is used to regulate the prefix. Bugs have been fixed, and azurerm app service has been improved.

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