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Top Hive Interview Questions – Most Asked

HIVE Interview Question
Here are top 27 objective type sample Hive Interview Questions and their answers are given just below to them. These sample questions are framed by experts from Intellipaat who train for Hive Training to give you an idea of type of questions which may be asked in interview. We have taken full care to give correct answers for all the questions. Do comment your thoughts. Happy Job Hunting!

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Top Answers to Hive Interview Questions

1. Compare Pig and Hive
Criteria Pig Hive
Architecture Procedural data flow language SQL type declarative language
Application Programming purposes Report creation
Operational field Client side Server side
Support for avro files Yes No
2. What is the definition of Hive? What is the present version of Hive and explain about ACID transactions in Hive?

Hive is an open source data warehouse system. We can use Hive for analyzing and querying in large data sets of Hadoop files. It’s similar to SQL. The present version of hive is 0.13.1. Hive supports ACID transactions: The full form of ACID is Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. ACID transactions are provided at the row levels, there are Insert, Delete, and Update options so that Hive supports ACID transaction.

  • Insert
  • Delete
  • Update

Want to learn more about Hive? Go through this insightful blog “What is Hive?”

3. Explain what is a Hive variable. What do we use it for?

Hive variable is basically created in the Hive environment that is referenced by Hive scripting languages. It provides to pass some values to the hive queries when the query starts executing. It uses the source command.

4. What kind of data warehouse application is suitable for Hive? What are the types of tables in Hive?

Hive is not considered as a full database. The design rules and regulations of Hadoop and HDFS put restrictions on what Hive can do.Hive is most suitable for data warehouse applications.
Where :

  • Analyzing the relatively static data.
  • Less Responsive time.
  • No rapid changes in data.Hive doesn’t provide fundamental features required for OLTP, Online Transaction Processing.Hive is suitable for data warehouse applications in large data sets.Two types of tables in Hive
  1. Managed table.
  2. External table.

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5. Can We Change settings within Hive Session? If Yes, How?

Yes we can change the settings within Hive session, using the SET command. It helps to change Hive job settings for an exact query.
Example: The following commands shows buckets are occupied according to the table definition.

hive> SET hive.enforce.bucketing=true;

We can see the current value of any property by using SET with the property name. SET will list all the properties with their values set by Hive.

hive> SET hive.enforce.bucketing;

hive.enforce.bucketing=true

And this list will not include defaults of Hadoop. So we should use the below like

SET -v

It will list all the properties including the Hadoop defaults in the system.

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6. Is it possible to add 100 nodes when we have 100 nodes already in Hive? How?

Yes, we can add the nodes by following the below steps.

  1. Take a new system create a new username and password.
  2. Install the SSH and with master node setup ssh connections.
  3. Add ssh public_rsa id key to the authorized keys file.
  4. Add the new data node host name, IP address and other details in /etc/hosts slaves file
    192.168.1.102 slave3.in slave3.
  5. Start the Data Node on New Node.
  6. Login to the new node like suhadoop or ssh -X hadoop@192.168.1.103.
  7. Start HDFS of a newly added slave node by using the following command
    ./bin/hadoop-daemon.sh start data node.
  8. Check the output of jps command on a new node
7. Explain the concatenation function in Hive with an example .

Concatenate function will join the input strings.We can specify the
‘N’ number of strings separated by a comma.
Example:

CONCAT ('Intellipaat','-','is','-','a','-','eLearning',’-’,’provider’);
Output:
Intellipaat-is-a-eLearning-provider

So, every time we set the limits of the strings by ‘-‘. If it is common for every strings, then Hive provides another command

CONCAT_WS. In this case,we have to specify the set limits of operator first.
CONCAT_WS ('-',’Intellipaat’,’is’,’a’,’eLearning’,‘provider’);
Output: Intellipaat-is-a-eLearning-provider.
8. Trim and Reverse function in Hive with examples.

Trim function will delete the spaces associated with a string.
Example:

TRIM(‘ INTELLIPAAT ‘);
Output:
INTELLIPAAT
To remove the Leading space
LTRIM(‘ INTELLIPAAT’);
To remove the trailing space
RTRIM(‘INTELLIPAAT ‘);
In Reverse function, characters are reversed in the string.
Example:
REVERSE(‘INTELLIPAAT’);
Output:
TAAPILLETNI
9. How to change the column data type in Hive? Explain RLIKE in Hive.

We can change the column data type by using ALTER and CHANGE.
The syntax is :

ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE column_namecolumn_namenew_datatype;

Example: If we want to change the data type of the salary column from integer to bigint in the employee table.
ALTER TABLE employee CHANGE salary salary BIGINT;RLIKE: Its full form is Right-Like and it is a special function in the Hive. It helps to examine the two substrings. i.e, if the substring of A matches with B then it evaluates to true.
Example:

‘Intellipaat’ RLIKE ‘tell’  True
‘Intellipaat’ RLIKE ‘^I.*’  True (this is a regular expression)

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10. What are the components used in Hive query processor?

The components of a Hive query processor include

  • Logical Plan of Generation.
  • Physical Plan of Generation.
  • Execution Engine.
  • Operators.
  • UDF’s and UDAF’s.
  • Optimizer.
  • Parser.
  • Semantic Analyzer.
  • Type Checking
11. What is Buckets in Hive?

The present data is partitioned and divided into different Buckets. This data is divided on the basis of Hash of the particular table columns.

12. Explain process to access sub directories recursively in Hive queries.

By using below commands we can access sub directories recursively in Hive

hive> Set mapred.input.dir.recursive=true;
hive> Set hive.mapred.supports.subdirectories=true;

Hive tables can be pointed to the higher level directory and this is suitable for the directory structure which is like /data/country/state/city/

13. What are the components used in Hive query processor?

The components of a Hive query processor include

  • Logical Plan of Generation
  • Physical Plan of Generation
  • Execution Engine
  • Operators
  • UDF’s and UDAF’s
  • Optimizer
  • Parser
  • Semantic Analyzer
  • Type Checking
14. How to skip header rows from a table in Hive?

Header records in log files
System=….
Version=…
Sub-version=….
In the above three lines of headers that we do not want to include in our Hive query. To skip header lines from our tables in the Hive,set a table property that will allow us to skip the header lines.

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE employee (
name STRING,
job STRING,
dob STRING,
id INT,
salary INT)
ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘ ‘ STORED AS TEXTFILE
LOCATION ‘/user/data’
TBLPROPERTIES("skip.header.line.count"="2”);
15. What is the maximum size of string data type supported by hive? Mention the Hive support binary formats.

The maximum size of string data type supported by hive is 2 GB.
Hive supports the text file format by default and it supports the binary format Sequence files, ORC files, Avro Data files, Parquet files.
Sequence files: Splittable, compressible and row oriented are the general binary format.
ORC files: Full form of ORC is optimized row columnar format files. It is a Record columnar file and column oriented storage file. It divides the table in row split. In each split stores that value of the first row in the first column and followed sub subsequently.
AVRO data files: It is same as a sequence file splittable, compressible and row oriented, but except the support of schema evolution and multilingual binding support.

16. What is the precedence order of HIVE configuration?

We are using a precedence hierarchy for setting the properties

  1. SET Command in HIVE
  2. The command line –hiveconf option
  3. Hive-site.XML
  4. Hive-default.xml
  5. Hadoop-site.xml
  6. Hadoop-default.xml
17. If you run a select * query in Hive, Why does it not run MapReduce?

The hive.fetch.task.conversion property of Hive lowers the latency of mapreduce overhead and in effect when executing queries like SELECT, FILTER, LIMIT, etc., it skips mapreduce function

18. How Hive can improve performance with ORC format tables?

We can store the hive data in highly efficient manner in the Optimized Row Columnar file format. It can simplify many Hive file format limitations. We can improve the performance by using ORC files while reading, writing and processing the data.

Set hive.compute.query.using.stats-true;
Set hive.stats.dbclass-fs;
CREATE TABLE orc_table (
idint,
name string)
ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘\:’
LINES TERMINATED BY ‘\n’
STORES AS ORC;

Need a reason to learn Apache Hadoop and Hive? Well, go through this blog post to find out why Hadoop is the new black.

19. Explain the functionality of Object-Inspector.

It helps to analyze the internal structure of row object and individual structure of columns in HIVE. It also provides a uniform way to access complex objects that can be stored in multiple formats in the memory.
Instance of Java class
A standard Java object
A lazily initialized object
The Object-Inspector tells structure of the object and also ways to access the internal fields inside the object.

20. Whenever we run hive query, new metastore_db is created. Why?

Local metastore is created when we run Hive in embedded mode. And before creating it checks whether the metastore exists or not and this metastore property is defined in the configuration file hive-site.xml. Property is“javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL” with default value “jdbc:derby:;databaseName=metastore_db;create=true”.So to change the behavior of the location to an absolute path, so that from that location meta-store will be used.

21. Differentiate between Hive and HBase
Hive HBase
Enables most of the SQL queries This doesn’t allow SQL queries
Doesn’t support record level insert, update, and delete operations on table It supports
It is a data warehouse framework It is NoSQL database
Hive run on the top of MapReduce HBase runs on the top of HDFS
22. How can we access the sub directories recursively?

By using below commands we can access sub directories recursively in Hive

hive> Set mapred.input.dir.recursive=true;
hive> Set hive.mapred.supports.subdirectories=true;

Hive tables can be pointed to the higher level directory and this is suitable for the directory structure which is like /data/country/state/city/

23. What are the uses of explode Hive?

Hadoop developers consider the array as their inputs and convert them into a separate table row. To convert complicate data types into desired table formats Hive is essentially using explode.

24. What is available mechanism for connecting from applications, when we run hive as a server?
  1. Thrift Client: Using thrift you can call hive commands from various programming languages. Example: C++, PHP,Java, Python and Ruby.
  2. JDBC Driver: JDBC Driver supports the Type 4 (pure Java) JDBC Driver
  3. ODBC Driver: ODBC Driver supports the ODBC protocol.
25. How do we write our own custom SerDe?

End users want to read their own data format instead of writing, so the user wants to write a Deserializer than SerDe.
Example: The RegexDeserializer will deserialize the data using the configuration parameter ‘regex’, and a list of column names.
If our SerDe supports DDL, we probably want to implement a protocol based on DynamicSerDe. It’s non-trivial to write a “thrift DDL” parser.

26. Mention the date data type in Hive. Name the Hive data type collection.

The TIMESTAMP data type stores date in java.sql.timestamp format.

Three collection data types in Hive

  1. ARRAY
  2. MAP
  3. STRUCT
27. Can we run UNIX shell commands from Hive? Can Hive queries be executed from script files? How? Give an example.

Yes, we can run UNIX shell commands from Hive using the! Mark before the command .For example: !pwd at hive prompt will list the current directory.
We can execute Hive queries from the script files by using the source command.
Example −

Hive> source /path/to/file/file_with_query.hql

 

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