In this PL/SQL tutorial you will learn PL/SQL from the basics to get a clear understanding of this top programming language. PL/SQL a procedural language that is combined with the SQL giving it some unique capabilities. PL/SQL along with Java and SQL are the three important programming languages that are embedded into the Oracle database. This PL/SQL tutorial will help you work with the Oracle Database and other concepts of RDBMS and help you learn PL/SQL in this context.
This PL/SQL tutorial is beneficial for software developers, SQL developers, Oracle database administrators & architects, data analysts and data scientists. You will learn PL/SQL fundamentals from this tutorial and then you can take your skills to the next level.
Learn PL SQL in 24 hrs from experts
This PL/SQL tutorial does not expect any prerequisites from the learners. But if you have a basic understanding of databases and SQL then it is beneficial.
To understand and learn PL/SQL better, first let us compare PL/SQL with SQL in the below table:
|What it is?||Single query to perform data operations||Block of codes to write entire program blocks|
|Mainly used for||Manipulate data||Create applications|
|Interaction with database server||Yes||No|
|How they are related?||Cannot contain PL/SQL blocks within it||Can contain SQL code within it|
PL/SQL stands for Procedural Language on Structured Query Language. It is a logical block of programs that can contain a number of sub-blocks. PL/SQL is extensively used with the Oracle database. Thanks to the additional functionalities of PL/SQL, it extends the reach of the Oracle database. Though PL/SQL is closely related to the SQL, it still has some additional features which are not available in the SQL.
PL/SQL is closely associated with the Oracle database and it is custom made to work with the Oracle. Due to this fact, PL/SQL owns a quarter of the market share for programming languages that work with a relational database thanks to the sheer size of the Oracle database in the RDBMS space. PL/SQL takes all that is good with the SQL and makes it even better. This makes managing database tasks, optimizing database performance extremely easy. Since PL/SQL is procedural language it tells how things need to be done rather than just what needs to be done.
In this section of the PL/SQL tutorial we will discuss some of the top features of this Procedural languages that extends the features of SQL.
Here you will learn PL/SQL advantages that make it such a great programming language to work with a relational database like Oracle.
Today a database like that of the Oracle drives the entire digital economy. More often than not, nobody knows how they are interacting with an Oracle database when they are accessing online banking, booking an airline ticked, buying products on an ecommerce site and so. All this means that PL/SQL is the language that is powering all these applications and more. The reason PL/SQL is so widely used are because it is much more than SQL.
It lets you query, transform and update the data within a database seamlessly. It lets you design and debug thanks to its strong features like encapsulation, exception handling, data hiding and so on. All applications written in PL/SQL are completely portable. It also offers a high level of security and pre-defined SQL packages as well. All these features mean PL/SQL is currently the most popular programming language for working with a database.
If you want to make a career as a database developer, be a data analyst or even a data scientist then you need to learn PL/SQL. It opens a whole new bunch of opportunities for you thanks to the ubiquitous nature of this Procedural Language that is an extension of SQL. Once you get your fundamentals right with this PL/SQL tutorial, you can then go on to learn PL/SQL for masterly in this domain and apply for the best jobs in the industry.
PL/SQL stands for Procedural Language/Structured Query Language. It is a combination of sql with procedural features of programming language. It stored and compiled in the database, runs within the Oracle executable and inherits the security, robustness and portability of the Oracle Database. 1.1 Advantages of PL/SQL PL/SQL is a completely portable, high-performance transaction processing language that Read More
Like other programming languages, PL/SQL has a character set, reserved words, punctuation, datatypes, and fixed syntax rules. Character Sets and Lexical Units PL/SQL programs are written as lines of text using a specific set of characters: ■ Upper- and lower-case letters A .. Z and a .. z ■ Numerals 0 .. 9 ■ Symbols ( Read More
Predefined PL/SQL datatypes are grouped into composite, LOB, reference, and scalar type categories. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually, such as the elements of an array, record, or table. A LOB type holds values, called lob locators, that specify the location of large objects, such as text blocks or graphic images, that Read More
Procedural computer programs use the basic control structures. The selection structure tests a condition, then executes one sequence of statements instead of another, depending on whether the condition is true or false. A condition is any variable or expression that returns a BOOLEAN value (TRUE or FALSE). The iteration structure executes a sequence of statements Read More
Collections and records are composite types that have internal components that can be manipulated individually, such as the elements of an array, record, or table. PL/SQL Collections A collection is an ordered group of elements, all of the same type. It is a general concept that encompasses lists, arrays, and other datatypes used in classic Read More
By extending SQL, PL/SQL offers a unique combination of power and ease of use. You can manipulate Oracle data flexibly and safely because PL/SQL fully supports all SQL data manipulation statements (except EXPLAIN PLAN), transaction control statements, functions, pseudocolumns, and operators. PL/SQL also conforms to the current ANSI/ISO SQL standard. Data Manipulation To Read More
Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can be called with a set of parameters. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms, procedures and functions. Subprograms have: ■ A declarative part, with declarations of types, cursors, constants, variables, exceptions, and nested subprograms. These items are local and cease to exist when the subprogram ends. ■ An executable part, Read More
A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types, variables, and subprograms. Packages usually have two parts, a specification (spec) and a body; sometimes the body is unnecessary. The specification is the interface to the package. It declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. Read More
In PL/SQL, an error condition is called an exception. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. Examples of internally defined exceptions include division by zero and out of memory. When an error occurs, an exception is raised. That is, normal execution stops and control transfers to the exception-handling part of your Read More
Object-oriented programming is especially suited for building reusable components and complex applications. In PL/SQL, object-oriented programming is based on object types. They let you model real-world objects, separate interfaces and implementation details, and store object-oriented data persistently in the database. [cf7pdfs id="1" type="e" heading="Get PL SQL Certification in Just 20 Hours" btntxt="Get Certified" popbtn="Get Certified"] Declaring Read More
An assignment statement sets the current value of a variable, field, parameter, or element. The statement consists of an assignment target followed by the assignment operator and an expression. When the statement is executed, the expression is evaluated and the resulting value is stored in the target. Syntax:- AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION Pragma The AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION pragma changes the way a Read More
Download Interview Questions asked by top MNCs in 2019?