**Artificial Neural networks**

ANN was developed considering the same as of our brain, same how our brain works was taken into account. It was inspired by the way neurons work, the major task is to process information. The architecture of neural network is similar to neurons.

Frank Rosenblatt in 1958 invented ANN and built the machine learning algorithm.

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## Neural Network Components

Each neural network consists of –

- Perceptron – mathematical representation of the neuron
- Weights,Bias – signifies the importance of each parameter.
- Activation function – at each neuron what makes it to be active or inactive
- Outcome
- Back propagation

Data can be of any format – Linear and Nonlinear. The neural networks learn the data types based on the activation function. It can understand the data based on quadratic functions.

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## Architecture of Neural network

It consists of the input value and output value. Each input value is associated with its weight, which passes on to next level, each perceptron will have an activation function. The weights and input value forms a single perception. We use activation function and based on that, the value goes to next well. And the process continues till it reaches output y’.

Sometimes in nonlinear data, the classification is done in three dimensionality than in two dimension.

**Forward propagation :**** **

The factor 1 keeps moving forward and gets activated in the next level, at the nodes the activation value like sigma, return h, based on that, values like 0, 1 or 2 is passed on to next level.

**Activation functions :**

** **These are used to activate neurons. Different activation functions are –

The activation function produces the output value 0 or 1, i.e. it classifies the output image for the result.

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**Cost function :**

Sometimes the algorithm we create might predict the value incorrectly, so we need cost function. It tried to quantify the error factor of neural network. It calculates how well the neural network is performing based on the actual vs predicted value.

**Error factor = Predicted – Actual. **

Cost function is used to minimize the error factor.

**Back Propagation :**

When we feel that outputs are not correct, we back propagate the values to adjust the weights to produce the right output. The architecture, activation functions remains the same in each perceptron. Adjusts using gradient descent. If you have any doubts or queries related to Back Propagation, do post on *Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning community.*

**Hyperparameters of ANN :**

Hyperparameters are those which are used to tune a neural network. These include –

- Learning rate – how fast it abandons the old belief for new ones
- Momentum – Smooth learning is maintained by gradient descent.
- Epoch – complete forward and backward propagation. As epoch increases, error decreases.

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