Basic difference between Deep Neural Network, Convolution Neural Network and Recurrent Neural Network

In this tutorial we will see about deep learning with Recurrent Neural Network, architecture of RNN, comparison between NN & RNN, variants of RNN, applications of AE, Autoencoders – architecture and application.

Deep neural networks Convolution neural networks Recurrent neural networks
Provides lift for classification and forecasting Features extraction & classification of images For sequence of events, languages, models, time series etc.
More than one hidden layer More than one hidden layer More than one hidden layer

Recurrent neural network :

Time series analysis such as stock prediction like price, price at time t1, t2 etc.. can be done using Recurrent neural network. Predictions depend on earlier data, in order to predict time t2, we get the earlier state information t1, this is known as recurrent neural network.

Feedforward NN :

Inputs are given in the form of feed as batches to each network. Retaining or passing the information to next layer is done in cyclic connections.

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Long short term memory :
They are explicitly designed to address the long term dependency problem, there are gates to remember, where to forget in LSTM. RNN with LSTM prevents vanishing gradient effect by passing errors recursively to the next NN. It controls the gradient flow & enable better preservation of “long-range dependencies” by using gates.

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Key components of LSTM :

  • Gates – forget, memory, update, read
  • tanh(x) – values from -1 to 1
  • sigmoid(x) – values from 0 to 1
Has loops Special type of RNN
Maintains memory from previous state Maintains memory from previous and even other states.
Length of the memory is very limited Length of the memory is quite large.

Architecture of LSTM :
This is similar to Convolution Neural Networks. Data from layer 1 are passed to next layer as well in the data flows manner.
Step 1: forget Gate – Earlier gate which has data to be remembered are concatenated with the new data to be remembered.
Step 2 : Memory Gate – Here it is used to determine how much information should be stored in the memory and how much percentage to forget. Operations like dot product, additions are performed here.
Step 3: Update Gate – Forget from the early state and operations are performed and updated.
Step 4 : Write the final output
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Variants of RNN :

  • LSTM
  • GRU :Gated recurrent unit
  • End to end network
  • Memory networ

Applications of RNN :

  • Predicting stock prices
  • Speech recognition
  • Image captions
  • Word predictions
  • Language translation

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Autoencoder : The aim of autoencoder is to learn a compressed form of given data.The predicted value should be roughly same as input. It has three layers only – Input data with bias (L1), compressed/Encoded layer (L2), Prediction layer (L3). In the autoencoder it passes some digit in compressed form, we can get the decoded format from layer L3.
Applications of autoencoder:

  • Data denoising
  • Dimensionality reduction
  • Image reconstruction
  • Image colorization

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