**What are **Vectors**?**

Vectors are the basic R data objects and there are 6 types of the atomic vectors. They can be

- Integer,
- Logical,
- Double,
- Complex,
- Character and
- Raw

**Creation of Vector**

There are two types of vector creation:

- Single Element Vector
- Multiple Elements Vector

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**Single Element Vector**

Whenever 1 word is written in R, it becomes a vector of length 1 and fits in one of the above vector types.

#Atomic vector of integer typeprint(52L)#Logical typeprint(TRUE)

**Output: **

sol <- nchar("Counting number of[1] 52[1] TRUE

**Multiple Elements Vector**

**Using Colon operator with numeric data**

This operator helps in a constant change over the numeric data with limits.

**Example:**

#Creating sequencea<- 4:10b<-2.2:4.2print(a)print(b)

**Output:**

[1] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10[1] 2.2 3.2 4.2

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**Using sequence(Seq.) operator**

#Creating vector by incrementing by 0.2print(seq(2, 3, by = 0.2))

**Output: **

[1] 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

**Accessing Vector Elements**

Indexing helps access the elements of a vector. The[ ] brackets are used for indexing.

Indexing starts with number 1 position. A negative value in the index rejects that element from output. 0 and 1 or TRUE and FALSE can be used for indexing.

#accessing vector elementsx<- c("letter one", "letter two", "letter three", "four", "five", "six")b<- x[c(1,3,6)]print(b)#Usage of logical Indexd<- x[c(FALSE, FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE)]print(d)#Using negative indexinge<- x[c(-1,-2,-3,-4)]print(e)

**Output:**

[1] "letter one" "letter three" "six"[1] "letter three" "four"[1] "five" "six"

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**Vector Manipulation**

**Vector Arithmetic**

Two vectors having the same length can do arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to get vector output.

**Vector Element Recycling**

When applying arithmetic operations to two vectors of unequal length, the elements of the shorter vector are recycled to complete the operations.

**Example:**

a <- c(2,4,6,8)b <- c(3,8)#b becomes c(3,8,3,8)add.op <- a+bprint(add.op)

* *Output:

[1] 5 12 9 16

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**Vector Element Sorting**

Sorting of elements in a vector takes place in ascending or descending order. It can be either numbers or characters.

**Example:**

a <- c(2, 5, -6, 0)#sorting elements of vectorsort.sol <- sort(a)print(sort.sol)#sorting character vectors in decreasing orderb <- c("Blue", "Red", "Green")revsort.sol <- sort(b, decreasing = TRUE)print(revsort.sol)

**Output:**

[1] -6 0 2 5[1] "Blue" "Green" "Red"